Envelope Stimulus Protocol
This CellML model is part of a CellML 1.1 model, this segment contains the 'envelope' stimulus protocol. The units are consistent throughout and it runs in OpenCell to recreate the published results.
ABSTRACT: We have developed a detailed mathematical model for Ca handling and ionic currents in the human ventricular myocyte. Our aims were to: (1) simulate basic excitation-contraction coupling phenomena; (2) use realistic repolarizing K current densities; (3) reach steady-state. The model relies on the framework of the rabbit myocyte model previously developed by our group, with subsarcolemmal and junctional compartments where ion channels sense higher [Ca] vs. bulk cytosol. Ion channels and transporters have been modeled on the basis of the most recent experimental data from human ventricular myocytes. Rapidly and slowly inactivating components of I(to) have been formulated to differentiate between endocardial and epicardial myocytes. Transmural gradients of Ca handling proteins and Na pump were also simulated. The model has been validated against a wide set of experimental data including action potential duration (APD) adaptation and restitution, frequency-dependent increase in Ca transient peak and [Na](i). Interestingly, Na accumulation at fast heart rate is a major determinant of APD shortening, via outward shifts in Na pump and Na-Ca exchange currents. We investigated the effects of blocking K currents on APD and repolarization reserve: I(Ks) block does not affect the former and slightly reduces the latter; I(K1) blockade modestly increases APD and more strongly reduces repolarization reserve; I(Kr) blockers significantly prolong APD, an effect exacerbated as pacing frequency is decreased, in good agreement with experimental results in human myocytes. We conclude that this model provides a useful framework to explore excitation-contraction coupling mechanisms and repolarization abnormalities at the single myocyte level.
The original paper reference is cited below:
A novel computational model of the human ventricular action potential and Ca transient, Eleonora Grandi, Francesco S. Pasqualini, Donald M. Bers, 2010, Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, volume 48, 112-121. PubMed ID: 19835882