Location: Earm, Noble, 1990 @ 0f4051afdbdd / earm_noble_1990.cellml

Author:
Catherine Lloyd <c.lloyd@auckland.ac.nz>
Date:
2010-05-06 08:59:52+12:00
Desc:
Fixed broken RDF by removing xml:base="".
Permanent Source URI:
http://models.cellml.org/workspace/earm_noble_1990/rawfile/0f4051afdbdda6e9e5aed31df87ab5f2713be81f/earm_noble_1990.cellml

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This CellML file was generated on 15/10/2007 at 15:54:43 using:

COR (0.9.31.801)
Copyright 2002-2007 Dr Alan Garny
http://COR.physiol.ox.ac.uk/ - COR@physiol.ox.ac.uk

CellML 1.0 was used to generate this cellular model
http://www.CellML.org/
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<article>

  <section id="sec_status">
    <title>Model Status</title>
    <para>
    	This CellML model runs in OpenCell and COR and reproduce the published results. The units have been checked and they are consistent.</para>
  </section>
  <sect1 id="sec_structure">
<title>Model Structure</title>

<para>
ABSTRACT: The hypothesis that calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac muscle is induced by rises in free cytosolic calcium (Fabiato 1983, Am. J. Physiol 245) allows the possibility that the release could be at least partly regenerative. There would then be a non-linear relation between calcium current and calcium release. We have investigated this possibility in a single-cell version of the rabbit-atrial model developed by Hilgemann &amp; Noble (1987, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 230). The model predicts different voltage ranges of activation for calcium-dependent processes (like the sodium-calcium exchange current, contraction or Fura-2 signals) and the calcium current, in agreement with the experimental results obtained by Earm et al. (1990, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 240) on exchange current tails, Cannell et al. (1987, Science, Wash. 238) by using Fura-2 signals, and Fedida et al. (1987, J. Physiol., Lond. 385) and Talo et al. (1988, Biology of isolated adult cardiac myocytes) by using contraction. However, when the Fura-2 concentration is sufficiently high (greater than 200 microM) the activation ranges become very similar as the buffering properties of Fura-2 are sufficient to remove the regenerative effect. It is therefore important to allow for the buffering properties of calcium indicators when investigating the correlation between calcium current and calcium release.
</para>

<informalfigure float="0" id="fig_cell_diagram">
<mediaobject>
  <imageobject>
    <objectinfo>
      <title>schematic diagram of a human atrial myocyte</title>
    </objectinfo>
    <imagedata fileref="earm_1990.png"/>
  </imageobject>
</mediaobject>
<caption>A schematic representation of the Earm and Noble 1990 model.</caption>
</informalfigure>

<para>
The original paper reference is cited below:
</para>

<para>
A model of the single atrial cell: relation between calcium current and calcium release, Y. E. Earm and D. Noble, 1990, 
            <emphasis>Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences</emphasis>
          , 240, 83-96. <ulink url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1972993">PubMed ID: 1972993</ulink> 
</para> 

</sect1>
</article>
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                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.125</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">10</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>s</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_s</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>s</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_s</ci>
                  <ci>s</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="sodium_potassium_pump">
      <variable cmeta:id="sodium_potassium_pump_i_NaK" name="i_NaK" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.14" name="i_NaK_max" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="1" name="K_mK" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="40" name="K_mNa" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="Na_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="K_c" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_NaK</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>i_NaK_max</ci>
                        <ci>K_c</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>K_mK</ci>
                        <ci>K_c</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>Na_i</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>K_mNa</ci>
                  <ci>Na_i</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="sodium_background_current">
      <variable name="E_Na" public_interface="out" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable cmeta:id="sodium_background_current_i_b_Na" name="i_b_Na" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.00012" name="g_b_Na" units="microS"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="RTONF" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="Na_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Na_o" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>RTONF</ci>
               <apply>
                  <ln/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>Na_o</ci>
                     <ci>Na_i</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_b_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_b_Na</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_Na</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="calcium_background_current">
      <variable name="E_Ca" public_interface="out" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable cmeta:id="calcium_background_current_i_b_Ca" name="i_b_Ca" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="5e-5" name="g_b_Ca" units="microS"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="RTONF" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="Ca_o" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E_Ca</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.5</cn>
               <ci>RTONF</ci>
               <apply>
                  <ln/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_b_Ca</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_b_Ca</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_Ca</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="Na_Ca_exchanger">
      <variable cmeta:id="Na_Ca_exchanger_i_NaCa" name="i_NaCa" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0001" name="k_NaCa" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="3" name="n_NaCa" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0001" name="d_NaCa" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.5" name="gamma" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="RTONF" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="Ca_o" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Na_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Na_o" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_NaCa</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>k_NaCa</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>gamma</ci>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>RTONF</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <ci>Na_i</ci>
                           <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>gamma</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>RTONF</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <ci>Na_o</ci>
                           <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar4">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>d_NaCa</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <power/>
                                 <ci>Na_o</ci>
                                 <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <power/>
                                 <ci>Na_i</ci>
                                 <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar">0.0069</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="potassium_background_current">
      <variable name="E_K" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable cmeta:id="potassium_background_current_i_b_K" name="i_b_K" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0017" name="g_b_K" units="microS"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_b_K</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_b_K</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_K</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="time_independent_potassium_current">
      <variable cmeta:id="time_independent_potassium_current_i_K1" name="i_K1" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="E_K" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.017" name="g_K1" units="microS"/>
      <variable initial_value="10" name="K_m_K1" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="RTONF" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="K_c" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="K_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_K1</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>g_K1</ci>
                        <ci>K_c</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>K_c</ci>
                        <ci>K_m_K1</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                     <ci>E_K</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <ci>E_K</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">10</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>RTONF</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_calcium_current">
      <variable cmeta:id="L_type_calcium_current_i_Ca_L" name="i_Ca_L" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_Ca" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_K" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_Na" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.05" name="P_Ca_L" units="nanoA_per_millimolar"/>
      <variable name="time" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="Ca_i" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="RTONF" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="Na_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Na_o" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_o" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="K_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="K_c" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="d" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="f_Ca" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="CaChon" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca</ci>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_K</ci>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_Na</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">4</cn>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>CaChon</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>RTONF</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <ci>RTONF</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">100</cn>
                           <ci>RTONF</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <ci>RTONF</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_K</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.002</cn>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>CaChon</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>RTONF</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <ci>RTONF</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>K_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                           <ci>RTONF</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>K_c</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <ci>RTONF</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.01</cn>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>CaChon</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>RTONF</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <ci>RTONF</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Na_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                           <ci>RTONF</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Na_o</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <ci>RTONF</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_calcium_current_d_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0.0011" name="d" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="alpha_d" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="beta_d" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="E0_d" units="millivolt"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E0_d</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>V</ci>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">19</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_d</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">120</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <apply>
                        <abs/>
                        <ci>E0_d</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">0.0001</cn>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">30</cn>
                        <ci>E0_d</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <ci>E0_d</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">4</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_d</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">120</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <apply>
                        <abs/>
                        <ci>E0_d</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">0.0001</cn>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">12</cn>
                        <ci>E0_d</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <ci>E0_d</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">10</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>d</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_d</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>d</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_d</ci>
                  <ci>d</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_calcium_current_f_Ca_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0.785" name="f_Ca" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="alpha_f_Ca" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="beta_f_Ca" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="CaChoff" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="CaChon" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="Ca_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="E0_f" units="millivolt"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E0_f</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>V</ci>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">34</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_f_Ca</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">25</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <apply>
                        <abs/>
                        <ci>E0_f</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">0.0001</cn>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">6.25</cn>
                        <ci>E0_f</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <ci>E0_f</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">4</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_f_Ca</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">12</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>E0_f</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">4</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>f_Ca</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">120</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <ci>f_Ca</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>CaChoff</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <ci>f_Ca</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <ci>CaChoff</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>beta_f_Ca</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_f_Ca</ci>
                  <ci>f_Ca</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>CaChoff</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <ci>Ca_i</ci>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar">0.001</cn>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>CaChon</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <ci>f_Ca</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <ci>CaChoff</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="sarcoplasmic_reticulum_calcium_pump">
      <variable cmeta:id="sarcoplasmic_reticulum_calcium_pump_i_up" name="i_up" public_interface="out" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable name="K_1" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="K_2" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0003" name="K_cyca" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.4" name="K_xcs" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.5" name="K_srca" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="3" name="alpha_up" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.23" name="beta_up" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable name="Ca_up" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="Ca_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>K_1</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>K_cyca</ci>
                  <ci>K_xcs</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>K_srca</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>K_2</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>Ca_i</ci>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>Ca_up</ci>
                  <ci>K_1</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>K_cyca</ci>
                  <ci>K_xcs</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>K_cyca</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_up</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     <ci>K_2</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>alpha_up</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>Ca_up</ci>
                        <ci>K_1</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>K_2</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>beta_up</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="calcium_release">
      <variable cmeta:id="calcium_release_i_rel" name="i_rel" public_interface="out" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable name="VoltDep" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="RegBindSite" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="ActRate" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="InactRate" units="per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="0" name="K_leak_rate" units="per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="250" name="K_m_rel" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="PrecFrac" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0" name="ActFrac" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0" name="ProdFrac" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="1" name="ProdFracRate" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="Ca_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_rel" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>PrecFrac</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <ci>ActFrac</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>ProdFrac</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>VoltDep</ci>
            <apply>
               <exp/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.08</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">40</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>RegBindSite</ci>
            <apply>
               <power/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar">0.0005</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>ActRate</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">600</cn>
                  <ci>VoltDep</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">500</cn>
                  <ci>RegBindSite</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>InactRate</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">60</cn>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">500</cn>
                  <ci>RegBindSite</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>ActFrac</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>PrecFrac</ci>
                  <ci>ActRate</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>ActFrac</ci>
                  <ci>InactRate</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>ProdFrac</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>ActFrac</ci>
                  <ci>InactRate</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>ProdFracRate</ci>
                  <ci>ProdFrac</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_rel</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <apply>
                        <power/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <ci>ActFrac</ci>
                           <apply>
                              <plus/>
                              <ci>ActFrac</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.25</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>K_m_rel</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>K_leak_rate</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>Ca_rel</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="calcium_translocation">
      <variable cmeta:id="calcium_translocation_i_trans" name="i_trans" public_interface="out" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable name="Ca_rel" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_up" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="50" name="alpha_tr" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_trans</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>Ca_up</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_rel</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>alpha_tr</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="extracellular_sodium_concentration">
      <variable cmeta:id="extracellular_sodium_concentration_Na_o" initial_value="140" name="Na_o" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
   </component>
   <component name="intracellular_sodium_concentration">
      <variable cmeta:id="intracellular_sodium_concentration_Na_i" initial_value="6.48" name="Na_i" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="V_i" public_interface="in" units="micrometre3"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="F" public_interface="in" units="coulomb_per_mole"/>
      <variable name="i_Na" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_b_Na" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_Na" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_NaK" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_NaCa" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Na_i</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="mA_nA">1</cn>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="litre_micrometre3">1</cn>
                     <ci>V_i</ci>
                     <ci>F</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>i_Na</ci>
                  <ci>i_b_Na</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                     <ci>i_NaK</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                     <ci>i_NaCa</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>i_Ca_L_Na</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="extracellular_calcium_concentration">
      <variable cmeta:id="extracellular_calcium_concentration_Ca_o" initial_value="2" name="Ca_o" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
   </component>
   <component name="extracellular_potassium_concentration">
      <variable cmeta:id="extracellular_potassium_concentration_K_c" initial_value="4" name="K_c" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
   </component>
   <component name="intracellular_potassium_concentration">
      <variable cmeta:id="intracellular_potassium_concentration_K_i" initial_value="140" name="K_i" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="V_i" public_interface="in" units="micrometre3"/>
      <variable name="i_K1" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_K" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_to" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_b_K" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_NaK" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="F" public_interface="in" units="coulomb_per_mole"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>K_i</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="mA_nA">1</cn>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="litre_micrometre3">1</cn>
                     <ci>V_i</ci>
                     <ci>F</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <ci>i_K1</ci>
                     <ci>i_Ca_L_K</ci>
                     <ci>i_to</ci>
                     <ci>i_b_K</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                     <ci>i_NaK</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="intracellular_calcium_concentration">
      <variable cmeta:id="intracellular_calcium_concentration_Ca_i" initial_value="1e-5" name="Ca_i" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable cmeta:id="intracellular_calcium_concentration_Ca_up" initial_value="0.3" name="Ca_up" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable cmeta:id="intracellular_calcium_concentration_Ca_rel" initial_value="0.3" name="Ca_rel" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0005" name="Ca_Calmod" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0015" name="Ca_Trop" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.02" name="Calmod" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.15" name="Trop" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="100000" name="alpha_Calmod" units="per_millimolar_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="50" name="beta_Calmod" units="per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="100000" name="alpha_Trop" units="per_millimolar_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="200" name="beta_Trop" units="per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.01" name="radius" units="micrometre"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.08" name="length" units="micrometre"/>
      <variable name="V_i" public_interface="out" units="micrometre3"/>
      <variable name="V_Cell" units="micrometre3"/>
      <variable name="V_i_ratio" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.1" name="V_rel_ratio" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.4" name="V_e_ratio" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.01" name="V_up_ratio" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="i_up" public_interface="in" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable name="i_trans" public_interface="in" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable name="i_rel" public_interface="in" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable name="i_NaCa" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_Ca" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_b_Ca" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="F" public_interface="in" units="coulomb_per_mole"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_Cell</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3.141592654</cn>
               <apply>
                  <power/>
                  <ci>radius</ci>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
               </apply>
               <ci>length</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_i_ratio</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>V_e_ratio</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>V_up_ratio</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>V_rel_ratio</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_i</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>V_Cell</ci>
               <ci>V_i_ratio</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_i</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="mA_nA">1</cn>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="litre_micrometre3">1</cn>
                                 <ci>V_i</ci>
                                 <ci>F</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca</ci>
                                 <ci>i_b_Ca</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 <ci>i_NaCa</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>i_rel</ci>
                              <ci>V_rel_ratio</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <ci>V_i_ratio</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <diff/>
                        <bvar>
                           <ci>time</ci>
                        </bvar>
                        <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <diff/>
                     <bvar>
                        <ci>time</ci>
                     </bvar>
                     <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <ci>i_up</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_up</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>V_i_ratio</ci>
                     <ci>V_up_ratio</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>i_up</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>i_trans</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_rel</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>V_up_ratio</ci>
                     <ci>V_rel_ratio</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>i_trans</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>i_rel</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_Calmod</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>Calmod</ci>
                     <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_Calmod</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_Trop</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>Trop</ci>
                     <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_Trop</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <group>
      <relationship_ref relationship="containment"/>
      <component_ref component="membrane">
         <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current">
            <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_m_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_h_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="sodium_potassium_pump"/>
         <component_ref component="sodium_background_current"/>
         <component_ref component="calcium_background_current"/>
         <component_ref component="Na_Ca_exchanger"/>
         <component_ref component="potassium_background_current"/>
         <component_ref component="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
         <component_ref component="transient_outward_current">
            <component_ref component="transient_outward_current_s_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="transient_outward_current_r_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="L_type_calcium_current">
            <component_ref component="L_type_calcium_current_d_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="L_type_calcium_current_f_Ca_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="sarcoplasmic_reticulum_calcium_pump"/>
         <component_ref component="calcium_release"/>
         <component_ref component="calcium_translocation"/>
         <component_ref component="extracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="extracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="extracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      </component_ref>
   </group>
   <group>
      <relationship_ref relationship="encapsulation"/>
      <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current">
         <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_m_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_h_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
      <component_ref component="transient_outward_current">
         <component_ref component="transient_outward_current_r_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="transient_outward_current_s_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
      <component_ref component="L_type_calcium_current">
         <component_ref component="L_type_calcium_current_d_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="L_type_calcium_current_f_Ca_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
   </group>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="environment" component_2="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="environment" component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="environment" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="fast_sodium_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_potassium_pump" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_background_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_background_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="Na_Ca_exchanger" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="potassium_background_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="time_independent_potassium_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="transient_outward_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_calcium_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sarcoplasmic_reticulum_calcium_pump" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_release" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_translocation" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="fast_sodium_current" component_2="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Na" variable_2="i_Na"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="RTONF" variable_2="RTONF"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="transient_outward_current" component_2="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_to" variable_2="i_to"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="RTONF" variable_2="RTONF"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_potassium_pump" component_2="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_NaK" variable_2="i_NaK"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_background_current" component_2="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_b_Na" variable_2="i_b_Na"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="RTONF" variable_2="RTONF"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_background_current" component_2="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_b_Ca" variable_2="i_b_Ca"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="RTONF" variable_2="RTONF"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="Na_Ca_exchanger" component_2="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_NaCa" variable_2="i_NaCa"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="RTONF" variable_2="RTONF"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="potassium_background_current" component_2="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_b_K" variable_2="i_b_K"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="time_independent_potassium_current" component_2="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_K1" variable_2="i_K1"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="RTONF" variable_2="RTONF"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_calcium_current" component_2="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L" variable_2="i_Ca_L"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="RTONF" variable_2="RTONF"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_release" component_2="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="F" variable_2="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="F" variable_2="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="F" variable_2="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="fast_sodium_current" component_2="extracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_o" variable_2="Na_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="fast_sodium_current" component_2="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_i" variable_2="Na_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Na" variable_2="i_Na"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="fast_sodium_current" component_2="extracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="K_c" variable_2="K_c"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="fast_sodium_current" component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="K_i" variable_2="K_i"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_potassium_pump" component_2="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_i" variable_2="Na_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_NaK" variable_2="i_NaK"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_potassium_pump" component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_NaK" variable_2="i_NaK"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_potassium_pump" component_2="extracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="K_c" variable_2="K_c"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="intracellular_calcium_concentration" component_2="Na_Ca_exchanger"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_i" variable_2="Ca_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_NaCa" variable_2="i_NaCa"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="intracellular_sodium_concentration" component_2="Na_Ca_exchanger"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_i" variable_2="Na_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_NaCa" variable_2="i_NaCa"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="extracellular_sodium_concentration" component_2="Na_Ca_exchanger"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_o" variable_2="Na_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="extracellular_calcium_concentration" component_2="Na_Ca_exchanger"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_o" variable_2="Ca_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_background_current" component_2="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_i" variable_2="Na_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_b_Na" variable_2="i_b_Na"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_background_current" component_2="extracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_o" variable_2="Na_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_background_current" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_i" variable_2="Ca_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_b_Ca" variable_2="i_b_Ca"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_background_current" component_2="extracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_o" variable_2="Ca_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="potassium_background_current" component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_b_K" variable_2="i_b_K"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="time_independent_potassium_current" component_2="extracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="K_c" variable_2="K_c"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="time_independent_potassium_current" component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="K_i" variable_2="K_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_K1" variable_2="i_K1"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_calcium_current" component_2="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_i" variable_2="Na_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L_Na" variable_2="i_Ca_L_Na"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_calcium_current" component_2="extracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_o" variable_2="Na_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_calcium_current" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_i" variable_2="Ca_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L_Ca" variable_2="i_Ca_L_Ca"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_calcium_current" component_2="extracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_o" variable_2="Ca_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_calcium_current" component_2="extracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="K_c" variable_2="K_c"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_calcium_current" component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="K_i" variable_2="K_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L_K" variable_2="i_Ca_L_K"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="transient_outward_current" component_2="extracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="K_c" variable_2="K_c"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="transient_outward_current" component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="K_i" variable_2="K_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_to" variable_2="i_to"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="transient_outward_current" component_2="potassium_background_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="E_K" variable_2="E_K"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="transient_outward_current" component_2="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="E_K" variable_2="E_K"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sarcoplasmic_reticulum_calcium_pump" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_i" variable_2="Ca_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_up" variable_2="i_up"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_up" variable_2="Ca_up"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_release" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_i" variable_2="Ca_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_rel" variable_2="Ca_rel"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_rel" variable_2="i_rel"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_translocation" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_up" variable_2="Ca_up"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_rel" variable_2="Ca_rel"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_trans" variable_2="i_trans"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="intracellular_sodium_concentration" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V_i" variable_2="V_i"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="intracellular_potassium_concentration" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V_i" variable_2="V_i"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="fast_sodium_current" component_2="fast_sodium_current_m_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="m" variable_2="m"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="fast_sodium_current" component_2="fast_sodium_current_h_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="h" variable_2="h"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_calcium_current" component_2="L_type_calcium_current_d_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="d" variable_2="d"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_calcium_current" component_2="L_type_calcium_current_f_Ca_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="f_Ca" variable_2="f_Ca"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_i" variable_2="Ca_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="CaChon" variable_2="CaChon"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="transient_outward_current" component_2="transient_outward_current_r_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="r" variable_2="r"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="transient_outward_current" component_2="transient_outward_current_s_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="s" variable_2="s"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>




<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6a249d2d-3081-4e95-9e7b-1bf9bf6353e6"><N xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#924d5d7a-da20-46a3-8601-051c90d6b875"/></N></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#970b139e-d42d-457e-a0bf-9bf4f49a0cb3"><creator xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#9fe124d6-c86a-4f55-95ec-3d2f8040268f"/></creator><rdf:value xml:lang="en">This file is a CellML description of the model described in the paper "A model of the single atrial cell: relation between calcium current and calcium release by Earm Y, Noble D, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, Vol. 240, No. 1297. (May 22, 1990), pp. 83-96."</rdf:value></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#e1e3b08a-d360-4099-86c7-7bd0876b8057"><W3CDTF xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xml:lang="en">1990-01-01 00:00</W3CDTF></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c9168cf1-ab54-4503-8c10-a7cd9b36d8d5"><FN xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">James Lawson</FN></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:nodeID="n1"><rdf:value><rdf:Description rdf:nodeID="n2"/></rdf:value><subject_type xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" xml:lang="en">keyword</subject_type></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#2dbbfc7d-0b23-4330-a59f-e6ce8462d520"><title xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xml:lang="en">Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences</title></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6d680697-e93d-4e1d-9c3e-4cc3cae8e55c"><rdf:value xml:lang="en">Made 2 new variables - dCaCalmoddt and dCaTropdt in component "intracellular_calcium_concentration," equated these variables to d(CaCalmod)/d(time) and d(CaTrop)/d(time), respectively. This was done to allow PCEnv 0.2 to run the model.</rdf:value><modified xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#df4f087b-f4c9-430d-b151-6cdda118391a"/></modified><cmeta:modifier><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c4466fe0-8b30-4899-87c5-80c6ee96cd6d"/></cmeta:modifier></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#bcc32dfd-e23d-4a08-9a19-135700bbcaa3"><Given xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">D</Given><Family xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Noble</Family></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#733fb75e-e630-4fb6-bcbc-634436430367"><Given xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Penny</Given><Family xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Noble</Family><Other xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">J</Other></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#2edd64bd-eb2c-463e-811c-18c01e11cff8"><creator xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c9168cf1-ab54-4503-8c10-a7cd9b36d8d5"/></creator><rdf:value xml:lang="en">This model has been curated by Penny Noble of Oxford University and is known to run in PCEnv and COR and reproduce the results published in the paper it is based on.</rdf:value></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#973d2959-8e5a-4ff4-876f-2c66715f0bde"><N xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#733fb75e-e630-4fb6-bcbc-634436430367"/></N><ORG xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#56186501-7e5d-46f8-a52d-ce114db2412d"/></ORG><EMAIL xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#d16eb7d3-0cb9-4bec-b505-b24ce1a9410e"/></EMAIL></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#9fe124d6-c86a-4f55-95ec-3d2f8040268f"><FN xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">James Lawson</FN></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c4466fe0-8b30-4899-87c5-80c6ee96cd6d"><N xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#76b0c01c-1b3f-41da-bede-e13679bb8151"/></N></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#d16eb7d3-0cb9-4bec-b505-b24ce1a9410e"><rdf:type><rdf:Description rdf:about="http://imc.org/vCard/3.0#internet"/></rdf:type><rdf:value xml:lang="en">penny.noble@dpag.ox.ac.uk</rdf:value></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#e4054abf-85f0-4b31-98aa-3c42eafafec8"><rdf:type><rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/></rdf:type><N xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#1da78a5c-5eb9-4270-b220-868f46f2d461"/></N></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#924d5d7a-da20-46a3-8601-051c90d6b875"><Given xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Penny</Given><Family xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Noble</Family><Other xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">J</Other></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:nodeID="n2"><rdf:type><rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#Bag"/></rdf:type><rdf:_1 xml:lang="en">electrophysiology</rdf:_1><rdf:_2 xml:lang="en">atrial myocyte</rdf:_2></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#0f4fc02e-64dd-402e-b192-d6c0e05265f4"><W3CDTF xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xml:lang="en">2007-09-19T00:00:00+00:00</W3CDTF></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c325be51-5b4b-476b-9726-797a894ccd8c"><W3CDTF xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xml:lang="en">2007-12-19T14:35:31+13:00</W3CDTF></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#$2WTDH3"><endingValue xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/simulation/1.0#" xml:lang="en">4</endingValue><maximumStepSize xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/simulation/1.0#" xml:lang="en">0.001</maximumStepSize><pointDensity xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/simulation/1.0#nonstandard-" xml:lang="en">50000</pointDensity></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#17d46493-fb17-453f-a05d-f278df491547"><Pubmed_id xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" xml:lang="en">1972993</Pubmed_id><JournalArticle xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c28cc29c-3b3a-4ac6-bc89-101a47117766"/></JournalArticle></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#76b0c01c-1b3f-41da-bede-e13679bb8151"><Given xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">James</Given><Family xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Lawson</Family><Other xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Richard</Other></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#0ea60b8d-ac1f-4b90-a879-54b61e1693d1"><rdf:type><rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#Seq"/></rdf:type><rdf:_1><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#e4054abf-85f0-4b31-98aa-3c42eafafec8"/></rdf:_1><rdf:_2><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#a7f200b5-3723-4580-b27a-f221d1d7a35e"/></rdf:_2></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#df4f087b-f4c9-430d-b151-6cdda118391a"><W3CDTF xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xml:lang="en">2007-09-20T12:35:21+12:00</W3CDTF></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#74f93467-482e-4481-9a60-01705daad17b"><rdf:value xml:lang="en">Units checked, curated</rdf:value><modified xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c325be51-5b4b-476b-9726-797a894ccd8c"/></modified><cmeta:modifier><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6a249d2d-3081-4e95-9e7b-1bf9bf6353e6"/></cmeta:modifier></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#$0WTDH3"><boundIntervals xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/simulation/1.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#$1WTDH3"/></boundIntervals></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#$1WTDH3"><rdf:first><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#$2WTDH3"/></rdf:first><rdf:rest><rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#nil"/></rdf:rest></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about=""><creator xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#973d2959-8e5a-4ff4-876f-2c66715f0bde"/></creator><cmeta:comment><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#2edd64bd-eb2c-463e-811c-18c01e11cff8"/></cmeta:comment><created xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#0f4fc02e-64dd-402e-b192-d6c0e05265f4"/></created><publisher xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xml:lang="en">Department of Physiology, Anatomy &amp; Genetics, University of Oxford</publisher><cmeta:modification><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6d680697-e93d-4e1d-9c3e-4cc3cae8e55c"/></cmeta:modification><cmeta:modification><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#74f93467-482e-4481-9a60-01705daad17b"/></cmeta:modification></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#1da78a5c-5eb9-4270-b220-868f46f2d461"><Given xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Y</Given><Family xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Earm</Family><Other xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">E</Other></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#a7f200b5-3723-4580-b27a-f221d1d7a35e"><rdf:type><rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/></rdf:type><N xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#bcc32dfd-e23d-4a08-9a19-135700bbcaa3"/></N></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c28cc29c-3b3a-4ac6-bc89-101a47117766"><title xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xml:lang="en">A Model of the Single Atrial Cell: Relation between Calcium Current and Calcium Release</title><creator xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#0ea60b8d-ac1f-4b90-a879-54b61e1693d1"/></creator><volume xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" xml:lang="en">240</volume><first_page xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" xml:lang="en">83</first_page><issued xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#e1e3b08a-d360-4099-86c7-7bd0876b8057"/></issued><Journal xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#2dbbfc7d-0b23-4330-a59f-e6ce8462d520"/></Journal><last_page xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" xml:lang="en">96</last_page></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="#earm_noble_1990"><reference xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:nodeID="n3"/></reference><reference xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#17d46493-fb17-453f-a05d-f278df491547"/></reference><simulation xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/simulation/1.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#$0WTDH3"/></simulation><cmeta:comment><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#970b139e-d42d-457e-a0bf-9bf4f49a0cb3"/></cmeta:comment></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#56186501-7e5d-46f8-a52d-ce114db2412d"><Orgunit xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Department of Physiology, Anatomy &amp; Genetics</Orgunit><Orgname xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Oxford University</Orgname></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:nodeID="n3"><subject xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"><rdf:Description rdf:nodeID="n1"/></subject></rdf:Description></rdf:RDF></model>