Location: Earm, Noble, 1990 @ c45152decc43 / earm_noble_1990.cellml

Author:
pmr2.import <nobody@models.cellml.org>
Date:
2007-03-23 04:22:31+12:00
Desc:
committing version02 of earm_noble_1990
Permanent Source URI:
http://models.cellml.org/workspace/earm_noble_1990/rawfile/c45152decc437f689e2fe1947eb28a14529e03a0/earm_noble_1990.cellml

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<model xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" xmlns:cmeta="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/1.0#" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:bqs="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" cmeta:id="earm_noble_1990_version02" name="earm_noble_1990_version02">
   
<documentation xmlns="http://cellml.org/tmp-documentation">
<article>

  <section id="sec_status">
    <title>Model Status</title>
    <para>
    	Version 02 was created from Version 01 by James Lawson (03/07) to allow the model to run in PCEnv.
          </para>
  </section>
  <sect1 id="sec_structure">
<title>Model Structure</title>

<para>
This model is based on the paper: 
A model of the single atrial cell - relation between calcium current and calcium release" 
by Earm Y, Noble D
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, Vol. 240, No. 1297. (May 22, 1990), pp. 83-96.

ABSTRACT:
"The hypothesis that calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac muscle is induced by rises in free cytosolic calcium (Fabiato 1983, Am. J. Physiol 245) allows the possibility that the release could be at least partly regenerative. There would then be a non-linear relation between calcium current and calcium release. We have investigated this possibility in a single-cell version of the rabbit-atrial model developed by Hilgemann &amp; Noble (1987, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 230). The model predicts different voltage ranges of activation for calcium-dependent processes (like the sodium-calcium exchange current, contraction or Fura-2 signals) and the calcium current, in agreement with the experimental results obtained by Earm et al. (1990, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 240) on exchange current tails, Cannell et al. (1987, Science, Wash. 238) by using Fura-2 signals, and Fedida et al. (1987, J. Physiol., Lond. 385) and Talo et al. (1988, Biology of isolated adult cardiac myocytes) by using contraction. However, when the Fura-2 concentration is sufficiently high (greater than 200 microM) the activation ranges become very similar as the buffering properties of Fura-2 are sufficient to remove the regenerative effect. It is therefore important to allow for the buffering properties of calcium indicators when investigating the correlation between calcium current and calcium release."
</para> 

<informalfigure float="0" id="fig_cell_diagram">
<mediaobject>
  <imageobject>
    <objectinfo>
      <title>schematic diagram of a human atrial myocyte</title>
    </objectinfo>
    <imagedata fileref="earm_1990.png"/>
  </imageobject>
</mediaobject>
<caption>A schematic representation of the Earm and Noble 1990 model.</caption>
</informalfigure>

<para> 
The complete original paper reference is cited below:
</para>

<para>
<ulink url="http://www.jstor.org/stable/49496?seq=1">A model of the single atrial cell: relation between calcium current and calcium release</ulink>, Y. E. Earm and D. Noble, 1990, <ulink url="http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/journals/00804649.html">
            <emphasis>Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences</emphasis>
          </ulink>, 240, 83-96. (A <ulink url="http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/49496.pdf">PDF version</ulink> of the article is available to subscribers on the journal website.)  <ulink url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1972993">PubMed ID: 1972993</ulink> 
</para> 

</sect1>
</article>
</documentation>    


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      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="out" name="E_Na"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_b_Na"/>
      <variable units="milliS_per_cm2" name="g_b_Na" initial_value="0.00012"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="millijoule_per_mole_kelvin" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
      <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
      <variable units="coulomb_per_mole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_i"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_o"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>R</ci>
                     <ci>T</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>F</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <ln/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>Na_o</ci>
                     <ci>Na_i</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_b_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_b_Na</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_Na</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="calcium_background_current">
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="out" name="E_Ca"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_b_Ca"/>
      <variable units="milliS_per_cm2" name="g_b_Ca" initial_value="5e-5"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="millijoule_per_mole_kelvin" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
      <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
      <variable units="coulomb_per_mole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_o"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_i"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E_Ca</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0.5</cn>
                     <ci>R</ci>
                     <ci>T</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>F</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <ln/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_b_Ca</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_b_Ca</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_Ca</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="Na_Ca_exchanger">
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_NaCa"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="k_NaCa" initial_value="0.0001"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="n_NaCa" initial_value="3"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="d_NaCa" initial_value="0.0001"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="gamma" initial_value="0.5"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="millijoule_per_mole_kelvin" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
      <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
      <variable units="coulomb_per_mole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_o"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_i"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_i"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_o"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_NaCa</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>k_NaCa</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>gamma</ci>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <ci>F</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>R</ci>
                                 <ci>T</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <ci>Na_i</ci>
                           <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>gamma</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <ci>F</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>R</ci>
                                 <ci>T</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <ci>Na_o</ci>
                           <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>d_NaCa</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <power/>
                                 <ci>Na_o</ci>
                                 <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <power/>
                                 <ci>Na_i</ci>
                                 <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                        <cn cellml:units="millimolar">0.0069</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="potassium_background_current">
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="E_K"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_b_K"/>
      <variable units="milliS_per_cm2" name="g_b_K" initial_value="0.0017"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="millijoule_per_mole_kelvin" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
      <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
      <variable units="coulomb_per_mole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="K_i"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="K_c"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_b_K</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_b_K</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_K</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="time_independent_potassium_current">
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_K1"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="E_K"/>
      <variable units="milliS_per_cm2" name="g_K1" initial_value="0.017"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="K_m_K1" initial_value="10"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="millijoule_per_mole_kelvin" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
      <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
      <variable units="coulomb_per_mole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="K_c"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="K_i"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_K1</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>g_K1</ci>
                        <ci>K_c</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>K_c</ci>
                        <ci>K_m_K1</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                     <ci>E_K</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <ci>E_K</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">10</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <ci>F</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <ci>R</ci>
                           <ci>T</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_calcium_current">
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_Ca_L"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_Ca_L_Ca"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_Ca_L_K"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_Ca_L_Na"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="P_Ca_L" initial_value="0.05"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="V"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="Ca_i"/>
      <variable units="millijoule_per_mole_kelvin" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
      <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
      <variable units="coulomb_per_mole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_i"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_o"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_o"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="K_i"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="K_c"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="d"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="f_Ca"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="CaChon"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca</ci>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_K</ci>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_Na</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">4</cn>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>CaChon</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>F</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>R</ci>
                        <ci>T</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">100</cn>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_K</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0.002</cn>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>CaChon</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>F</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>R</ci>
                        <ci>T</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>K_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">50</cn>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>K_c</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0.01</cn>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>CaChon</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>F</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>R</ci>
                        <ci>T</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Na_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">50</cn>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Na_o</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_calcium_current_d_gate">
      <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="d" initial_value="0.0011"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="alpha_d"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="beta_d"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" name="E0_d"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E0_d</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>V</ci>
               <cn cellml:units="millivolt">19</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_d</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_second">120</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <apply>
                        <abs/>
                        <ci>E0_d</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <cn cellml:units="millivolt">0.0001</cn>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">30</cn>
                        <ci>E0_d</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <ci>E0_d</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">4</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_d</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_second">120</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <apply>
                        <abs/>
                        <ci>E0_d</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <cn cellml:units="millivolt">0.0001</cn>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">12</cn>
                        <ci>E0_d</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <ci>E0_d</ci>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">10</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>d</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_d</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>d</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_d</ci>
                  <ci>d</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_calcium_current_f_Ca_gate">
      <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="f_Ca" initial_value="0.785"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="alpha_f_Ca"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="beta_f_Ca"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="CaChoff"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="CaChon"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_i"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" name="E0_f"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E0_f</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>V</ci>
               <cn cellml:units="millivolt">34</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_f_Ca</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_second">25</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <apply>
                        <abs/>
                        <ci>E0_f</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <cn cellml:units="millivolt">0.0001</cn>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">6.25</cn>
                        <ci>E0_f</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <ci>E0_f</ci>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">4</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_f_Ca</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn cellml:units="per_second">12</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>E0_f</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="millivolt">4</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>f_Ca</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn cellml:units="per_second">120</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <ci>f_Ca</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>CaChoff</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <ci>f_Ca</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <ci>CaChoff</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>beta_f_Ca</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_f_Ca</ci>
                  <ci>f_Ca</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>CaChoff</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <ci>Ca_i</ci>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0.001</cn>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>CaChon</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <ci>f_Ca</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <ci>CaChoff</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="sarcoplasmic_reticulum_calcium_pump">
      <variable units="millimolar_per_second" public_interface="out" name="i_up"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="K_1"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="K_2"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="K_cyca" initial_value="0.0003"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="K_xcs" initial_value="0.4"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="K_srca" initial_value="0.5"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="alpha_up" initial_value="3"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="beta_up" initial_value="0.23"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_up"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_i"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>K_1</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>K_cyca</ci>
                  <ci>K_xcs</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>K_srca</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>K_2</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>Ca_i</ci>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>Ca_up</ci>
                  <ci>K_1</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>K_cyca</ci>
                  <ci>K_xcs</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>K_cyca</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_up</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     <ci>K_2</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>alpha_up</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>Ca_up</ci>
                        <ci>K_1</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>K_2</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>beta_up</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="calcium_release">
      <variable units="millimolar_per_second" public_interface="out" name="i_rel"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" name="VoltDep"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="RegBindSite"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="ActRate"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="InactRate"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="K_leak_rate" initial_value="0"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="K_m_rel" initial_value="250"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="PrecFrac"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="ActFrac" initial_value="0"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="ProdFrac" initial_value="0"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_i"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_rel"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>PrecFrac</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <ci>ActFrac</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>ProdFrac</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>VoltDep</ci>
            <apply>
               <exp/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0.08</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                     <cn cellml:units="millivolt">40</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>RegBindSite</ci>
            <apply>
               <power/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     <cn cellml:units="millimolar">0.0005</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>ActRate</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">600</cn>
                  <ci>VoltDep</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_second">500</cn>
                  <ci>RegBindSite</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>InactRate</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <cn cellml:units="per_second">60</cn>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_second">500</cn>
                  <ci>RegBindSite</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>ActFrac</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>PrecFrac</ci>
                  <ci>ActRate</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>ActFrac</ci>
                  <ci>InactRate</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>ProdFrac</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>ActFrac</ci>
                  <ci>InactRate</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_second">0.6</cn>
                  <ci>ProdFrac</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_rel</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <apply>
                        <power/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <ci>ActFrac</ci>
                           <apply>
                              <plus/>
                              <ci>ActFrac</ci>
                              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0.25</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>K_m_rel</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>K_leak_rate</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>Ca_rel</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="calcium_translocation">
      <variable units="millimolar_per_second" public_interface="out" name="i_trans"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_rel"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_up"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="alpha_tr" initial_value="50"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_trans</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>Ca_up</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_rel</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>alpha_tr</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="extracellular_sodium_concentration">
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Na_o" initial_value="140"/>
   </component>
   <component name="intracellular_sodium_concentration">
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Na_i" initial_value="6.48"/>
      <variable units="microlitre" public_interface="in" name="V_i"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="coulomb_per_mole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_Na"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_b_Na"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_Ca_L_Na"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_NaK"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_NaCa"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Na_i</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>V_i</ci>
                     <ci>F</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>i_Na</ci>
                  <ci>i_b_Na</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                     <ci>i_NaK</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                     <ci>i_NaCa</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>i_Ca_L_Na</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="extracellular_calcium_concentration">
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Ca_o" initial_value="2"/>
   </component>
   <component name="extracellular_potassium_concentration">
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="K_c" initial_value="4"/>
   </component>
   <component name="intracellular_potassium_concentration">
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="K_i" initial_value="140"/>
      <variable units="microlitre" public_interface="in" name="V_i"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_K1"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_Ca_L_K"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_to"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_b_K"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_NaK"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="coulomb_per_mole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>K_i</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>V_i</ci>
                     <ci>F</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <ci>i_K1</ci>
                     <ci>i_Ca_L_K</ci>
                     <ci>i_to</ci>
                     <ci>i_b_K</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                     <ci>i_NaK</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="intracellular_calcium_concentration">
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Ca_i" initial_value="1e-5"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Ca_up" initial_value="0.3"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Ca_rel" initial_value="0.3"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="Ca_Calmod" initial_value="0.0005"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="Ca_Trop" initial_value="0.0015"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="Calmod" initial_value="0.02"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="Trop" initial_value="0.15"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="alpha_Calmod" initial_value="100000"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="beta_Calmod" initial_value="50"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="alpha_Trop" initial_value="100000"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="beta_Trop" initial_value="200"/>
      <variable units="micrometre" name="radius" initial_value="10"/>
      <variable units="micrometre" name="length" initial_value="80"/>
      <variable units="microlitre" public_interface="out" name="V_i"/>
      <variable units="microlitre" name="V_Cell"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="V_i_ratio"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="V_rel_ratio" initial_value="0.1"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="V_e_ratio" initial_value="0.4"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="V_up_ratio" initial_value="0.01"/>
      <variable units="millimolar_per_second" public_interface="in" name="i_up"/>
      <variable units="millimolar_per_second" public_interface="in" name="i_trans"/>
      <variable units="millimolar_per_second" public_interface="in" name="i_rel"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_NaCa"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_Ca_L_Ca"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_b_Ca"/>
      <variable units="coulomb_per_mole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_Cell</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">3.141592654</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <power/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <ci>radius</ci>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1000</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>length</ci>
               </apply>
               <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1000</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_i_ratio</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>V_e_ratio</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>V_up_ratio</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>V_rel_ratio</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_i</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>V_Cell</ci>
               <ci>V_i_ratio</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci>time</ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci>Ca_i</ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <plus/>
                <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <minus/>
                      <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                    </apply>
                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>V_i</ci>
                  <ci>F</ci>
                  <apply>
                    <minus/>
                    <apply>
                      <plus/>
                      <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca</ci>
                      <ci>i_b_Ca</ci>
                    </apply>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                      <ci>i_NaCa</ci>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <ci>i_rel</ci>
                    <ci>V_rel_ratio</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>V_i_ratio</ci>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <ci>dCa_Calmod_dtime</ci>
            </apply>
            <ci>dCa_Trop_dtime</ci>
          </apply>
          <ci>i_up</ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_up</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>V_i_ratio</ci>
                     <ci>V_up_ratio</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>i_up</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>i_trans</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_rel</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>V_up_ratio</ci>
                     <ci>V_rel_ratio</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>i_trans</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>i_rel</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_Calmod</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>Calmod</ci>
                     <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_Calmod</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_Trop</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>Trop</ci>
                     <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_Trop</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      <apply>
        <eq/>
        <ci>dCa_Calmod_dtime</ci>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci>alpha_Calmod</ci>
            <ci>Ca_i</ci>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <ci>Calmod</ci>
              <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci>beta_Calmod</ci>
            <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      <apply>
        <eq/>
        <ci>dCa_Trop_dtime</ci>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci>alpha_Trop</ci>
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            </apply>
          </apply>
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            <times/>
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        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
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         <component_ref component="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
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    <vCard:Other>E</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#3ebb7f5e-2f95-475b-9c44-33764e29211a">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://imc.org/vCard/3.0#internet"/>
    <rdf:value>unknown</rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="">
    <cmeta:modification rdf:resource="rdf:#5a91d7bf-e646-4312-8d32-7291f63016d6"/>
    <dcterms:created rdf:resource="rdf:#ffcbea15-665d-4998-b1f3-0fd718ea4a0f"/>
    <dc:creator rdf:resource="rdf:#ed50b0ef-16bb-489a-85cf-2939b0f0577d"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="#earm_noble_1990_version02">
    <bqs:reference rdf:resource="rdf:#f2f8d00e-91e5-4846-bc25-4696d580aa30"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#5a91d7bf-e646-4312-8d32-7291f63016d6">
    <dcterms:modified rdf:resource="rdf:#2c610b80-bd3e-465c-90a0-7a803bd27be9"/>
    <rdf:value>
          added metadata
        </rdf:value>
    <cmeta:modifier rdf:resource="rdf:#356050df-36c5-43d8-a8e5-74e4146c75f5"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6e814874-672d-4959-b65b-b8ba4b058c3e">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>1990-01-01</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
</rdf:RDF>
</model>