Location: Hodgkin, Huxley, 1952 @ 32cbb0553667 / hodgkin_huxley_1952.cellml

Author:
Catherine Lloyd <c.lloyd@auckland.ac.nz>
Date:
2009-10-09 11:26:01+13:00
Desc:
Uploaded the Oxford Units curated version of the model.
Permanent Source URI:
http://models.cellml.org/workspace/hodgkin_huxley_1952/rawfile/32cbb0553667b2dfe7dbc2678dabbccb8191f35c/hodgkin_huxley_1952.cellml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>

<model xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" xmlns:cmeta="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/1.0#" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:ns8="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/graphs/1.0#" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:bqs="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xmlns:ns7="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/simulation/1.0#" name="hodgkin_huxley_squid_axon_1952" cmeta:id="hodgkin_huxley_squid_axon_1952"> 

<documentation xmlns="http://cellml.org/tmp-documentation">
 <article>
 <section id="sec_status">
  <title>Model Status</title> 
  <para>This version has had a stimulus protocol component added to allow the model to simulate multiple action potentials, has been unit checked and curated and is known to run in COR and PCEnv.</para> 
  </section>
 <sect1 id="sec_structure">
  <title>Model Structure</title> 
  
  <para>
In a series of papers published in 1952, A.L. Hodgkin and A.F. Huxley presented the results of a series of experiments in which they investigated the flow of electric current through the surface membrane of the giant nerve fibre of a squid. In the summary paper of the Hodgkin and Huxley model, the authors developed a mathematical description of the behaviour of the membrane based upon these experiments, which accounts for the conduction and excitation of the fibre. The form of this description has been used as the basis for almost all other ionic current models of excitable tissues, including Purkinje fibres and cardiac atrial and ventricular muscle.
</para>
  
  <para>The summary paper is cited below:</para> 
 
 <para>
 A Quantitative Description of Membrane Current and its Application to Conduction and Excitation in Nerve, A. L. Hodgkin and A. F. Huxley, 1952, <emphasis>The Journal of Physiology</emphasis>, 117, 500-544.
  <ulink url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&amp;cmd=Retrieve&amp;dopt=AbstractPlus&amp;list_uids=12991237&amp;query_hl=1&amp;itool=pubmed_docsum">PubMed ID: 12991237</ulink>
 </para>
 
 <informalfigure float="0" id="fig_circuit_diagram">
<mediaobject>
  <imageobject>
    <objectinfo>
      <title>Electrical circuit describing the current across the cell membrane</title>
    </objectinfo>
    <imagedata fileref="hodgkin_1952.png"/>
  </imageobject>
</mediaobject>
<caption>A schematic cell diagram describing the current flows across the cell membrane that are captured in the Hodgkin Huxley model.</caption>
</informalfigure>

  </sect1>
  </article>
  </documentation>   
  
   <units xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" name="millisecond">
      <unit units="second" prefix="milli"/>
   </units>
   <units xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" name="per_millisecond">
      <unit units="second" prefix="milli" exponent="-1"/>
   </units>
   <units xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" name="millivolt">
      <unit units="volt" prefix="milli"/>
   </units>
   <units xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" name="per_millivolt_millisecond">
      <unit units="millivolt" exponent="-1"/>
      <unit units="second" prefix="milli" exponent="-1"/>
   </units>
   <units xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" name="milliS_per_cm2">
      <unit units="siemens" prefix="milli"/>
      <unit units="metre" prefix="centi" exponent="-2"/>
   </units>
   <units xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" name="microF_per_cm2">
      <unit units="farad" prefix="micro"/>
      <unit units="metre" prefix="centi" exponent="-2"/>
   </units>
   <units xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" name="microA_per_cm2">
      <unit units="ampere" prefix="micro"/>
      <unit units="metre" prefix="centi" exponent="-2"/>
   </units>
   <component xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" name="environment">
      <variable name="time" units="millisecond" public_interface="out"/>
   </component>
   <component xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" name="membrane">
      <variable name="V" units="millivolt" initial_value="-75" public_interface="out"/>
      <variable name="E_R" units="millivolt" initial_value="-75" public_interface="out"/>
      <variable name="Cm" units="microF_per_cm2" initial_value="1"/>
      <variable name="time" units="millisecond" public_interface="in"/>
      <variable name="i_Na" units="microA_per_cm2" public_interface="in"/>
      <variable name="i_K" units="microA_per_cm2" public_interface="in"/>
      <variable name="i_L" units="microA_per_cm2" public_interface="in"/>
      <variable name="i_Stim" units="microA_per_cm2"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Stim</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn cellml:units="microA_per_cm2">20</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <and/>
                     <apply>
                        <geq/>
                        <ci>time</ci>
                        <cn cellml:units="millisecond">10</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <leq/>
                        <ci>time</ci>
                        <cn cellml:units="millisecond">10.5</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <cn cellml:units="microA_per_cm2">0</cn>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>V</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <ci>i_Stim</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>i_Na</ci>
                     <ci>i_K</ci>
                     <ci>i_L</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <ci>Cm</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" name="sodium_channel">
      <variable name="i_Na" units="microA_per_cm2" public_interface="out"/>
      <variable name="g_Na" units="milliS_per_cm2" initial_value="120"/>
      <variable name="E_Na" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" units="millisecond" public_interface="in" private_interface="out"/>
      <variable name="V" units="millivolt" public_interface="in" private_interface="out"/>
      <variable name="E_R" units="millivolt" public_interface="in"/>
      <variable name="m" units="dimensionless" private_interface="in"/>
      <variable name="h" units="dimensionless" private_interface="in"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>E_R</ci>
               <cn cellml:units="millivolt">115</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_Na</ci>
               <apply>
                  <power/>
                  <ci>m</ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
               </apply>
               <ci>h</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_Na</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" name="sodium_channel_m_gate">
      <variable name="m" units="dimensionless" initial_value="0.05" public_interface="out"/>
      <variable name="alpha_m" units="per_millisecond"/>
      <variable name="beta_m" units="per_millisecond"/>
      <variable name="V" units="millivolt" public_interface="in"/>
      <variable name="time" units="millisecond" public_interface="in"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_m</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt_millisecond">0.1</cn>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                     <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <apply>
                              <plus/>
                              <ci>V</ci>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="millivolt">10</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_m</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn cellml:units="per_millisecond">4</cn>
               <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="millivolt">75</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <cn cellml:units="millivolt">18</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>m</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_m</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>m</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_m</ci>
                  <ci>m</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" name="sodium_channel_h_gate">
      <variable name="h" units="dimensionless" initial_value="0.6" public_interface="out"/>
      <variable name="alpha_h" units="per_millisecond"/>
      <variable name="beta_h" units="per_millisecond"/>
      <variable name="V" units="millivolt" public_interface="in"/>
      <variable name="time" units="millisecond" public_interface="in"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_h</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn cellml:units="per_millisecond">0.07</cn>
               <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="millivolt">75</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <cn cellml:units="millivolt">20</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_h</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn cellml:units="per_millisecond">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <apply>
                              <plus/>
                              <ci>V</ci>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">45</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="millivolt">10</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>h</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_h</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>h</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_h</ci>
                  <ci>h</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" name="potassium_channel">
      <variable name="i_K" units="microA_per_cm2" public_interface="out"/>
      <variable name="g_K" units="milliS_per_cm2" initial_value="36"/>
      <variable name="E_K" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" units="millisecond" public_interface="in" private_interface="out"/>
      <variable name="V" units="millivolt" public_interface="in" private_interface="out"/>
      <variable name="E_R" units="millivolt" public_interface="in"/>
      <variable name="n" units="dimensionless" private_interface="in"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E_K</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <ci>E_R</ci>
               <cn cellml:units="millivolt">12</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_K</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_K</ci>
               <apply>
                  <power/>
                  <ci>n</ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">4</cn>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_K</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" name="potassium_channel_n_gate">
      <variable name="n" units="dimensionless" initial_value="0.325" public_interface="out"/>
      <variable name="alpha_n" units="per_millisecond"/>
      <variable name="beta_n" units="per_millisecond"/>
      <variable name="V" units="millivolt" public_interface="in"/>
      <variable name="time" units="millisecond" public_interface="in"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_n</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt_millisecond">0.01</cn>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                     <cn cellml:units="millivolt">65</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <apply>
                              <plus/>
                              <ci>V</ci>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">65</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="millivolt">10</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_n</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn cellml:units="per_millisecond">0.125</cn>
               <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>V</ci>
                        <cn cellml:units="millivolt">75</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <cn cellml:units="millivolt">80</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>n</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_n</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>n</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_n</ci>
                  <ci>n</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" name="leakage_current">
      <variable name="i_L" units="microA_per_cm2" public_interface="out"/>
      <variable name="g_L" units="milliS_per_cm2" initial_value="0.3"/>
      <variable name="E_L" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" units="millisecond" public_interface="in"/>
      <variable name="V" units="millivolt" public_interface="in"/>
      <variable name="E_R" units="millivolt" public_interface="in"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E_L</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>E_R</ci>
               <cn cellml:units="millivolt">10.613</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_L</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_L</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_L</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <group xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#">
      <relationship_ref relationship="containment"/>
      <component_ref component="membrane">
         <component_ref component="sodium_channel">
            <component_ref component="sodium_channel_m_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="sodium_channel_h_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="potassium_channel">
            <component_ref component="potassium_channel_n_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="leakage_current"/>
      </component_ref>
   </group>
   <group xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#">
      <relationship_ref relationship="encapsulation"/>
      <component_ref component="sodium_channel">
         <component_ref component="sodium_channel_m_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="sodium_channel_h_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
      <component_ref component="potassium_channel">
         <component_ref component="potassium_channel_n_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
   </group>
   <connection xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#">
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#">
      <map_components component_1="sodium_channel" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#">
      <map_components component_1="potassium_channel" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#">
      <map_components component_1="leakage_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#">
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="sodium_channel"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="E_R" variable_2="E_R"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Na" variable_2="i_Na"/>
   </connection>
   <connection xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#">
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="potassium_channel"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="E_R" variable_2="E_R"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_K" variable_2="i_K"/>
   </connection>
   <connection xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#">
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="leakage_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="E_R" variable_2="E_R"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_L" variable_2="i_L"/>
   </connection>
   <connection xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#">
      <map_components component_1="sodium_channel" component_2="sodium_channel_m_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="m" variable_2="m"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#">
      <map_components component_1="sodium_channel" component_2="sodium_channel_h_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="h" variable_2="h"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#">
      <map_components component_1="potassium_channel" component_2="potassium_channel_n_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="n" variable_2="n"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   
   <rdf:RDF>
  <rdf:Bag rdf:about="rdf:#e9e44e76-9801-4440-a074-6509ae83c1b7">
    <rdf:li>Neuron</rdf:li>
    <rdf:li>giant axon</rdf:li>
    <rdf:li>electrophysiology</rdf:li>
  </rdf:Bag>
  <rdf:Seq rdf:about="rdf:#5aa345d1-498a-40fe-852c-be5a6c19cb10">
    <rdf:li rdf:resource="rdf:#51a60dc9-2f70-4eb6-845a-1dafe7feb919"/>
    <rdf:li rdf:resource="rdf:#3e67593e-eafa-479e-8369-1879d475ea1a"/>
  </rdf:Seq>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#9402b850-7050-4483-9cc7-a84fe2f91be2">
    <vCard:Given>A</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Hodgkin</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>L</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#00da010f-7f66-47c5-89f7-a0d13ca1ddf4">
    <dcterms:modified rdf:resource="rdf:#9ee1d23e-9cd8-45d8-8b8f-fcf480cf5c95"/>
    <rdf:value>Added more metadata.</rdf:value>
    <cmeta:modifier rdf:resource="rdf:#f9a8c5a9-bc9c-4b50-bdbe-e9e5956bc3bd"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="">
    <dc:publisher>The University of Auckland, Bioengineering Institute</dc:publisher>
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#5f502734-46d5-4a70-bd04-3e0f1d128044"/>
    <dcterms:created rdf:resource="rdf:#665adec2-47bb-4f04-80a1-68f545e81a0e"/>
    <dc:creator rdf:resource="rdf:#110653f5-2489-488d-a6ed-8e8d5e1e49d0"/>
    <cmeta:modification rdf:resource="rdf:#00da010f-7f66-47c5-89f7-a0d13ca1ddf4"/>
    <cmeta:modification rdf:resource="rdf:#11e3f403-75e7-4da6-9f6b-c5732c0cab1d"/>
    <cmeta:modification rdf:resource="rdf:#384803b0-d02a-414d-86fe-2ead34d6ede9"/>
    <cmeta:modification rdf:resource="rdf:#70de1e12-eccf-4c2c-a514-a53a1018aeb3"/>
    <cmeta:modification rdf:resource="rdf:#8fd18725-5764-4794-8857-23e4f6ce4b18"/>
    <cmeta:modification rdf:resource="rdf:#926f9f08-b397-491a-ac44-76e38b182232"/>
    <cmeta:modification rdf:resource="rdf:#f0c9b743-d359-449c-ac0c-25d95cf30ee6"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#384803b0-d02a-414d-86fe-2ead34d6ede9">
    <dcterms:modified rdf:resource="rdf:#70448d97-7f25-4048-8bd3-da91d466bfd1"/>
    <rdf:value>Correcting the equation for dv/dt.</rdf:value>
    <cmeta:modifier rdf:resource="rdf:#85f445d5-2b20-4a8a-937a-44890e1ccf00"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#70448d97-7f25-4048-8bd3-da91d466bfd1">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>2002-11-20</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#5f502734-46d5-4a70-bd04-3e0f1d128044">
    <dc:creator rdf:resource="rdf:#eee88e88-b221-451f-84ca-e2517ca582d7"/>
    <rdf:value>This version (07) has had a stimulus protocol component added (to version 06, by James Lawson, 15/06/07) to allow the model to simulate multiple action potentials. Version 05 was created by Penny Noble of Oxford University and is known to run in COR and PCEnv. The intial voltage membrane potential was changed from 0 mV to the correct value of -75 mV. (Version 06 is the same as version 05 but has updated documentation)</rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="#hodgkin_huxley_squid_axon_1952">
    <cmeta:bio_entity>Neuron</cmeta:bio_entity>
    <ns7:simulation rdf:resource="rdf:#$Tpnot2"/>
    <dc:title>The Classic Hodgkin-Huxley 1952 Model of A Squid Axon.</dc:title>
    <cmeta:species>Squid</cmeta:species>
    <bqs:Pubmed_id>12991237</bqs:Pubmed_id>
    <bqs:reference rdf:resource="rdf:#2f069a61-06ba-4782-a877-f31e770cdf0d"/>
    <bqs:reference rdf:resource="rdf:#c1c62bec-a4f9-4b41-91ab-bbc81d473192"/>
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#66bca445-cdee-4030-81ee-ed5b822bf666"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#2f069a61-06ba-4782-a877-f31e770cdf0d">
    <bqs:Pubmed_id>12991237</bqs:Pubmed_id>
    <bqs:JournalArticle rdf:resource="rdf:#6a5c1370-80c1-4b42-aead-44170b5e073e"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c1c62bec-a4f9-4b41-91ab-bbc81d473192">
    <dc:subject rdf:resource="rdf:#34d6c118-3d31-4355-90dc-a2cb5ef18374"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#110653f5-2489-488d-a6ed-8e8d5e1e49d0">
    <vCard:ORG rdf:resource="rdf:#5f6a3f59-56b0-4c8f-9885-b8cf157290ef"/>
    <vCard:EMAIL rdf:resource="rdf:#18be6072-0bb2-486b-bf47-d786a8ccb00a"/>
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#e64f82a7-a34d-4f8b-8e60-012dbf5ea240"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#957446e8-2852-4457-a3f6-0e87906f21b9">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>1952-01-01</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#11e3f403-75e7-4da6-9f6b-c5732c0cab1d">
    <dcterms:modified rdf:resource="rdf:#140c4615-dbeb-4856-aa9c-68f554470dfa"/>
    <cmeta:modifier rdf:resource="rdf:#b7d9bdf8-8ab9-4b18-903c-84dc2b140727"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#f9a8c5a9-bc9c-4b50-bdbe-e9e5956bc3bd">
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#bde7bd97-4909-4ba8-8a80-7457d90944ff"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#86821b4a-b64d-46a1-8aec-e3f4544cb540">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>2007-06-14T07:38:16+12:00</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#18be6072-0bb2-486b-bf47-d786a8ccb00a">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://imc.org/vCard/3.0#internet"/>
    <rdf:value>c.lloyd@auckland.ac.nz</rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#8fd18725-5764-4794-8857-23e4f6ce4b18">
    <dcterms:modified rdf:resource="rdf:#6875edb4-a9cd-4bb6-b8f9-03b2c7cc8124"/>
    <cmeta:modifier rdf:resource="rdf:#18a9b9a3-ea24-4c7d-9df0-4f3663e434bd"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#70de1e12-eccf-4c2c-a514-a53a1018aeb3">
    <dcterms:modified rdf:resource="rdf:#5bc4f7d2-1306-4281-88b5-a5afe628bc66"/>
    <rdf:value>Added stimulus protocol to allow simulation of trains of action potentials. The stimulus amplitude (20 microamperes per cm2) and duration (0.5 ms) were taken from the single stimulus in the previous version. Set a period of 200 ms (arbitrary) to allow visualisation of 3 action potentials together at a resonable zoom level.</rdf:value>
    <cmeta:modifier rdf:resource="rdf:#e897f342-e771-4ae3-876d-062dfdfccc88"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#34d6c118-3d31-4355-90dc-a2cb5ef18374">
    <bqs:subject_type>keyword</bqs:subject_type>
    <rdf:value rdf:resource="rdf:#e9e44e76-9801-4440-a074-6509ae83c1b7"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#e897f342-e771-4ae3-876d-062dfdfccc88">
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#56197c17-2399-482e-9645-a522ed0beb31"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#5bc4f7d2-1306-4281-88b5-a5afe628bc66">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>2007-06-15T12:32:55+12:00</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#5f6a3f59-56b0-4c8f-9885-b8cf157290ef">
    <vCard:Orgname>The University of Auckland</vCard:Orgname>
    <vCard:Orgunit>The Bioengineering Institute</vCard:Orgunit>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#3e67593e-eafa-479e-8369-1879d475ea1a">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/>
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#0f72a1b1-ef97-4005-ad81-81353e3383ef"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#$Upnot2">
    <rdf:rest rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#nil"/>
    <rdf:first rdf:resource="rdf:#$Vpnot2"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#56197c17-2399-482e-9645-a522ed0beb31">
    <vCard:Given>James</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Lawson</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>Richard</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#2db6628b-7f2e-4536-94e2-cbba185e47e3">
    <vCard:Given>Catherine</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Lloyd</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>May</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#bd2a51c8-81c1-4015-8a10-a0ff312038a5">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>2002-11-20</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#eee0af8e-5256-4021-9426-80fe492518bc">
    <dc:title>Journal of Physiology</dc:title>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#9ee1d23e-9cd8-45d8-8b8f-fcf480cf5c95">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>2002-07-19</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#eee88e88-b221-451f-84ca-e2517ca582d7">
    <vCard:FN>James Lawson</vCard:FN>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#d7dedc5f-038d-45c5-b191-69311c173c69">
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#2db6628b-7f2e-4536-94e2-cbba185e47e3"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#bde7bd97-4909-4ba8-8a80-7457d90944ff">
    <vCard:Given>Catherine</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Lloyd</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>May</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#e64f82a7-a34d-4f8b-8e60-012dbf5ea240">
    <vCard:Given>Catherine</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Lloyd</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>May</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#f0c9b743-d359-449c-ac0c-25d95cf30ee6">
    <dcterms:modified rdf:resource="rdf:#bd2a51c8-81c1-4015-8a10-a0ff312038a5"/>
    <rdf:value>Correcting the equation for dv/dt.</rdf:value>
    <cmeta:modifier rdf:resource="rdf:#372d59c8-494a-409d-95e7-350b2ad6c199"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6d8cd909-915e-4a88-96ee-33dcda056c46">
    <vCard:FN>Warren Hedley</vCard:FN>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#926f9f08-b397-491a-ac44-76e38b182232">
    <dcterms:modified rdf:resource="rdf:#86821b4a-b64d-46a1-8aec-e3f4544cb540"/>
    <rdf:value>Fixed the broken figure links.</rdf:value>
    <cmeta:modifier rdf:resource="rdf:#d7dedc5f-038d-45c5-b191-69311c173c69"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6a5c1370-80c1-4b42-aead-44170b5e073e">
    <dc:creator rdf:resource="rdf:#5aa345d1-498a-40fe-852c-be5a6c19cb10"/>
    <dc:title>A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conductance and excitation in nerve</dc:title>
    <bqs:volume>117</bqs:volume>
    <bqs:first_page>500</bqs:first_page>
    <bqs:Journal rdf:resource="rdf:#eee0af8e-5256-4021-9426-80fe492518bc"/>
    <dcterms:issued rdf:resource="rdf:#957446e8-2852-4457-a3f6-0e87906f21b9"/>
    <bqs:last_page>544</bqs:last_page>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#51a60dc9-2f70-4eb6-845a-1dafe7feb919">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/>
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#9402b850-7050-4483-9cc7-a84fe2f91be2"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6875edb4-a9cd-4bb6-b8f9-03b2c7cc8124">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>2007-06-15T12:32:55+12:00</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#140c4615-dbeb-4856-aa9c-68f554470dfa">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>2007-06-20T16:01:50+12:00</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#9b923383-f1a8-48c7-b1ee-0ca41c08de54">
    <vCard:Given>David</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Nickerson</vCard:Family>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#0f72a1b1-ef97-4005-ad81-81353e3383ef">
    <vCard:Given>A</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Huxley</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>F</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#$Vpnot2">
    <ns7:endingValue>750</ns7:endingValue>
    <ns7:nonstandard-pointDensity>50000</ns7:nonstandard-pointDensity>
    <ns7:maximumStepSize>0.01</ns7:maximumStepSize>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#665adec2-47bb-4f04-80a1-68f545e81a0e">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>2002-03-26T00:00:00+00:00</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#66bca445-cdee-4030-81ee-ed5b822bf666">
    <dc:creator rdf:resource="rdf:#6d8cd909-915e-4a88-96ee-33dcda056c46"/>
    <rdf:value>This is the CellML description of Hodgkin and Huxley's inspirational work on a mathematical description of currents through the membrane of a nerve fibre (axon) in a giant squid, and their application to the modelling of excitation in the nerve. It is generally regarded as the first example of a mathematical model of biology.</rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#18a9b9a3-ea24-4c7d-9df0-4f3663e434bd">
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#3b0e83c3-4898-4081-84fa-85c0d2807054"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#645f2f0c-9134-420b-9177-df0862a7a1fc">
    <vCard:Given>David</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Nickerson</vCard:Family>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#b7d9bdf8-8ab9-4b18-903c-84dc2b140727">
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#2513dee6-5449-443a-b035-2ff762ff3069"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#372d59c8-494a-409d-95e7-350b2ad6c199">
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#645f2f0c-9134-420b-9177-df0862a7a1fc"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#85f445d5-2b20-4a8a-937a-44890e1ccf00">
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#9b923383-f1a8-48c7-b1ee-0ca41c08de54"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#$Tpnot2">
    <ns7:boundIntervals rdf:resource="rdf:#$Upnot2"/>
  </rdf:Description>
</rdf:RDF>
</model>