Location: Noble, 1962 @ ae0a0838746d / noble_1962.cellml

Author:
Catherine Lloyd <c.lloyd@auckland.ac.nz>
Date:
2010-04-13 14:56 +1200
Desc:
Fixed xml:base so that the session file will become visible in PMR2.
Permanent Source URI:
http://models.cellml.org/workspace/noble_1962/rawfile/ae0a0838746d4b969102db6171c9dc17e03dd335/noble_1962.cellml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!--
This CellML file was generated on 21/08/2007 at 17:38:21 using:

COR (0.9.31.751)
Copyright 2002-2007 Dr Alan Garny
http://COR.physiol.ox.ac.uk/ - COR@physiol.ox.ac.uk

CellML 1.0 was used to generate this cellular model
http://www.CellML.org/
-->

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<documentation xmlns="http://cellml.org/tmp-documentation">
<article>
  <articleinfo>
  <title>Noble Purkinje Fibre Model 1962</title>
  <author>
    <firstname>Catherine</firstname>
          <surname>Lloyd</surname>
    <affiliation>
      <shortaffil>Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland</shortaffil>
    </affiliation>
  </author>
</articleinfo>
  <section id="sec_status">
    <title>Model Status</title>
    <para>
      This CellML model runs in COR, JSim and OpenCell to recreate the published results. The units have been checked and they are consistent. 
</para>
  </section>
  <sect1 id="sec_structure">
<title>Model Structure</title>

<para>
In 1962, Denis Noble published one of the first mathematical models of a cardiac cell.  By adapting the equations of the original Hodgkin-Huxley squid axon model (1952), Noble described the long lasting action and pace-maker potentials of the Purkinje fibres of the heart.  The potassium-current equations differ from those of Hodgkin and Huxley in that the potassium ions are assumed to flow through two types of channel in the membrane.  By contrast, the sodium current equations are very similar to those of Hodgkin and Huxley.
</para>

<para>
The main failure of the Noble (1962) model is that it only includes one voltage gated inward current, I<subscript>Na</subscript>.  Calcium currents had not yet been discovered, but there was a clue in the model that something was missing.  The only way the model could be made to work was to greatly extend the voltage range of the sodium current by reducing the voltage dependence of the sodium activation process.  In effect the sodium current was made to serve the function of both the sodium and the calcium channels as far as the plateau is concerned.  There was a clear experimental prediction: either sodium channels in the heart are quantitatively different from those in neurons, or other inward current-carrying channels must exist.  Both predictions are correct.
</para>

<para>
The original paper reference is cited below:
</para>

<para>
A Modification of the Hodgkin-Huxley Equations Applicable to Purkinje Fibre Action and Pace-maker Potentials, Noble, D. 1962 
            <emphasis>Journal of Physiology</emphasis>
          , 160, 317-352.  <ulink url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&amp;db=PubMed&amp;list_uids=14480151&amp;dopt=Abstract">PubMed ID: 14480151</ulink>
</para>

<informalfigure float="0" id="fig_reaction_diagram">
<mediaobject>
  <imageobject>
    <objectinfo>
      <title>model diagram</title>
    </objectinfo>
    <imagedata fileref="hodgkin_1952.png"/>
  </imageobject>
</mediaobject>
<caption>A schematic cell diagram describing the current flows across the cell membrane that are captured in the Noble 1962 model.  Note that this image is identical to the schematic diagram which describes the Hodgkin-Huxley 1952 model.  This is because the Noble 1962 model is based on the HH 1952 model, and the ony differences are in the parameters of the model, and also the gating of the potassium channel - and these differences do not show in the schematic diagram.</caption>
</informalfigure>

</sect1>
</article>
</documentation>

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    <rdf:value>This is the CellML description of Noble's 1962 mathematical model of Purkinje fibre action and pace-maker potentials.  The equations formulated by Hodgkin and Huxley (1952) to describe the electrical activity of squid nerve have been modified to describe the action and pace-maker potentials of the Purkinje fibres of the heart.</rdf:value>
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