Location: Ramirez, Nattel, Courtemanche, 2000 @ 2b863bc9d3b3 / ramirez_nattel_courtemanche_2000.cellml

Author:
Catherine Lloyd <c.lloyd@auckland.ac.nz>
Date:
2010-04-01 11:50:53+13:00
Desc:
Fixed broken documentation and e-notation.
Permanent Source URI:
http://models.cellml.org/workspace/ramirez_nattel_courtemanche_2000/rawfile/2b863bc9d3b3da2495b6a1c0b79de08e297e32c2/ramirez_nattel_courtemanche_2000.cellml

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<!--  FILE :  ramirez_atrial_model_2000.xml

CREATED :  29th March 2002

LAST MODIFIED : 13th August 2003

AUTHOR :  Catherine Lloyd
          The Bioengineering Institute
          The University of Auckland
          
MODEL STATUS :  This model conforms to the CellML 1.0 Specification released on
10th August 2001, and the CellML Metadata 1.0 Specification released on 16th
January, 2002.

DESCRIPTION :  This file contains a CellML description of Ramirez et al's 2000 mathematical model of a canine atrial cell.   

CHANGES:
  17/06/2002 - AAC - Changed equation 'tau_v_calcvlation' to
                     'tau_v_calculation'.
  18/07/2002 - CML - Added more metadata.
  09/04/2003 - AAC - Added publication date information.
  13/08/2003 - CML - Corrected equations.  
-->

<model xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" xmlns:cmeta="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/1.0#" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:bqs="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" cmeta:id="ramirez_2000" name="ramirez_2000">
<documentation xmlns="http://cellml.org/tmp-documentation">
<article>
  <articleinfo>
  <title>Mathematical analysis of canine atrial action potentials: rate, regional factors, and electrical remodeling</title>
  <author>
    <firstname>Catherine</firstname>
          <surname>Lloyd</surname>
    <affiliation>
      <shortaffil>Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland</shortaffil>
    </affiliation>
  </author>
</articleinfo>
  <section id="sec_status">
    <title>Model Status</title>
    <para>
            This CellML runs in both OpenCell and COR but there are several unit inconsistencies. Further curation is required to get the model to run to recreate the published results.
          </para>
  </section>
  <sect1 id="sec_structure">
<title>Model Structure</title>

<para>
ABSTRACT: Dogs have been used extensively to study atrial arrhythmias, but there are no published mathematical models of the canine atrial action potential (AP). To obtain insights into the ionic mechanisms governing canine atrial AP properties, we incorporated formulations of K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), and Cl(-) currents, based on measurements in canine atrial myocytes, into a mathematical model of the AP. The rate-dependent behavior of model APs corresponded to experimental measurements and pointed to a central role for L-type Ca(2+) current inactivation in rate adaptation. Incorporating previously described regional ionic current variations into the model largely reproduced AP forms characteristic of the corresponding right atrial regions (appendage, pectinate muscle, crista terminalis, and atrioventricular ring). When ionic alterations induced by tachycardia-dependent remodeling were incorporated, the model reproduced qualitatively the AP features constituting the cellular substrate for atrial fibrillation. We conclude that this ionic model of the canine atrial AP agrees well with experimental measurements and gives potential insights into mechanisms underlying functionally important electrophysiological phenomena in canine atrium.
</para>

<para>
The complete original paper reference is cited below:
</para>

<para>
Mathematical analysis of canine atrial action potentials: rate, regional factors, and electrical remodeling, Rafael J. Ramirez, Stanley Nattel and Marc Courtemanche, 2000, <emphasis>American Journal of Physiology</emphasis>, 279, H1767-H1785. <ulink url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11009464">PubMed ID: 11009464</ulink> 
</para>

<informalfigure float="0" id="fig_cell_diagram">
<mediaobject>
  <imageobject>
    <objectinfo>
      <title>schematic diagram of a canine atrial myocyte</title>
    </objectinfo>
    <imagedata fileref="ramirez_2000.png"/>
  </imageobject>
</mediaobject>
<caption>A schematic representation of the canine atrial myocyte.  Intracellular compartments indicate the intracellular pools of ion species.  The ion concentration in each pool is affected by ionic currents, pumps and exchangers.  The sarcoplasmic reticulum is divided into two compartments: the Ca2+ release compartment, or junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (JSR) and the Ca2+ uptake compartment, or network sarcoplasmic reticulum (NSR).</caption>
</informalfigure>

</sect1>
</article>
</documentation>
  
 
  
  <units name="millisecond">
    <unit units="second" prefix="milli"/>
  </units>
  
  <units name="per_millisecond">
    <unit units="millisecond" exponent="-1"/>
  </units>
  
  <units name="millivolt">
    <unit units="volt" prefix="milli"/>
  </units>
  
  <units name="per_millivolt">
    <unit units="millivolt" exponent="-1"/>
  </units>
  
  <units name="per_millivolt_millisecond">
    <unit units="millivolt" exponent="-1"/>
    <unit units="millisecond" exponent="-1"/>
  </units>
  
  <units name="millimolar">
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    <unit units="litre" exponent="-1"/>
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  <units name="millimolar_per_millisecond">
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    <unit units="millisecond" exponent="-1"/>
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  <units name="picoA_per_picoF">
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    <unit units="farad" prefix="pico" exponent="-1"/>
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  <units name="nanoS_per_picoF">
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  <units name="picoF">
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  </units>
  
  <units name="micrometre_3">
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  <units name="joule_per_mole_kelvin">
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    <unit units="kelvin" exponent="-1"/>
  </units>
  
  <units name="coulomb_per_millimole">
    <unit units="coulomb"/>
    <unit units="mole" prefix="milli" exponent="-1"/>
  </units>
  

  <component name="environment">
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="out" name="time"/>
  </component>
  
  <component name="membrane">
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="out" name="V" initial_value="-83.53"/>
    <variable units="joule_per_mole_kelvin" public_interface="out" name="R" initial_value="8.3143"/>
    <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="out" name="T" initial_value="310.0"/>
    <variable units="coulomb_per_millimole" public_interface="out" name="F" initial_value="96.4867"/>
    
    <variable units="picoF" name="Cm" initial_value="100.0"/>
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    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_Na"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_K1"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_to"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_Kur_d"/>
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    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_Ks"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_Ca"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_Cl_Ca"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_p_Ca"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_NaK"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_NaCa"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_B_Na"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_B_Ca"/>
    
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              <ci> i_Na </ci>
              <ci> i_K1 </ci>
              <ci> i_to </ci>
              <ci> i_Kur_d </ci>
              <ci> i_Kr </ci>
              <ci> i_Ks </ci>
              <ci> i_Ca </ci>
              <ci> i_Cl_Ca </ci>
              <ci> i_p_Ca </ci>
              <ci> i_NaCa </ci>
              <ci> i_NaK </ci>
              <ci> i_B_Na </ci>
              <ci> i_B_Ca </ci>
              <ci> i_stim </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <ci> Cm </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="fast_sodium_current">
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_Na"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="out" name="E_Na"/>
    
    <variable units="nanoS_per_picoF" name="g_Na" initial_value="7.8"/>
    
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="time"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_i"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_o"/>
    <variable units="joule_per_mole_kelvin" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
    <variable units="coulomb_per_millimole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
    <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
   
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="m"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="h"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="j"/>
  
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
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        <eq/>
        <ci> i_Na </ci>
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          <times/>
          <ci> g_Na </ci>
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            <power/>
            <ci> m </ci>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
          </apply>
          <ci> h </ci>
          <ci> j </ci>
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            <minus/>
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            <ci> E_Na </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="E_Na_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> E_Na </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> R </ci>
              <ci> T </ci>
            </apply>
            <ci> F </ci>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <ln/>                
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <ci> Na_o </ci>
              <ci> Na_i </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply> 
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="fast_sodium_current_m_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="m" initial_value="0.001972"/>
        
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="alpha_m"/>
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="beta_m"/>

    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
   
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="alpha_m_calculation">
        <eq/>
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          <times/>
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            <divide/>
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                  <times/>
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                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 47.13 </cn>
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        </apply>
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        <ci> beta_m </ci>
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            <exp/>
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              <divide/>
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            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="dm_dt">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> m </ci>
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          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci> alpha_m </ci>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt"> 1.0 </cn>
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          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci> beta_m </ci>
            <ci> m </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>  
      
  <component name="fast_sodium_current_h_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="h" initial_value="0.9791"/>
        
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="alpha_h"/>
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="beta_h"/>

    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
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        <eq/>
        <ci> alpha_h </ci>
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            <apply>
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              <cn cellml:units="per_millisecond"> 0.135 </cn>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
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                    <plus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 80.0 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -6.8 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <lt/>
              <ci> V </ci> 
              <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -40.0 </cn>
            </apply>
          </piece>
          <otherwise>
            <cn cellml:units="per_millisecond"> 0.0 </cn>
          </otherwise>
        </piecewise>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="beta_h_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> beta_h </ci>
        <piecewise>
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            <apply>
              <plus/>
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                <times/>
                <cn cellml:units="per_millisecond"> 3.56 </cn>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 0.079 </cn>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <cn cellml:units="per_millisecond"> 310000.0 </cn>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt"> 0.35 </cn>
                    <ci> V </ci>
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                </apply>
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                      </apply>
                      <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -11.1 </cn>
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            </apply>
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      <apply id="dh_dt">
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            <ci> alpha_h </ci>
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  <component name="fast_sodium_current_j_gate">
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    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="alpha_j"/>
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="beta_j"/>
    
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
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</cn>
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                        <times/> 
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                    <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt"> -0.01052 </cn>
                    <ci> V </ci>
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                      <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 40.14 </cn>
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                    <ci> V </ci>                                                
                  </apply>
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                    <times/>
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                      <plus/>
                      <ci> V </ci>
                      <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 32.0 </cn>
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                  </apply>
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              </apply>
            </apply>                                                            
          </otherwise> 
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              <ci> j </ci>
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            <times/>
            <ci> beta_j </ci>
            <ci> j </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="time_independent_potassium_current">
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_K1"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="out" name="E_K"/>
    
    <variable units="nanoS_per_picoF" name="g_K1" initial_value="0.15"/>
    
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="K_o"/>
    <variable units="joule_per_mole_kelvin" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
    <variable units="coulomb_per_millimole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
    <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="K_i"/>
  
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="i_K1_calculation">
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        <ci> i_K1 </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci> g_K1 </ci>
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              <minus/>
              <ci> V </ci>
              <ci> E_K </ci>
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            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.07 </cn>
                <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 80.0 </cn>
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      <apply id="E_K_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> E_K </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> R </ci>
              <ci> T </ci>
            </apply>
            <ci> F </ci>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <ln/>                
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <ci> K_o </ci>
              <ci> K_i </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply> 
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="transient_outward_K_current">
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_to"/>
     
    <variable units="nanoS_per_picoF" name="g_to" initial_value="0.19824"/>
    
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="E_K"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="time"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="V"/>
              
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="oa"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="oi"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="i_to_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_to </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> g_to </ci>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <ci> oa </ci>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
          </apply>
          <ci> oi </ci>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> V </ci>
            <ci> E_K </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="transient_outward_K_current_oa_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="oa" initial_value="0.07164"/>
    
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="alpha_oa"/>
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="beta_oa"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" name="tau_oa"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="oa_infinity"/>  
    
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
   
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="oa_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> oa </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> oa_infinity </ci>
            <ci> oa </ci>
          </apply>
          <ci> tau_oa </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="alpha_oa_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> alpha_oa </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <cn cellml:units="per_millisecond"> 0.65 </cn>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <plus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 18.0 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -8.5 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <minus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 16.0 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -59.0 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="beta_oa_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> beta_oa </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <cn cellml:units="per_millisecond"> 1.2 </cn>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.2 </cn>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <plus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 75.0 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 18.0 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="tau_oa_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> tau_oa </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <ci> alpha_oa </ci>
            <ci> beta_oa </ci>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="oa_infinity_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> oa_infinity </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 0.5 </cn>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -10.5 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
    
  <component name="transient_outward_K_current_oi_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="oi" initial_value="0.9980"/>
    
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="alpha_oi"/>
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="beta_oi"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" name="tau_oi"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="oi_infinity"/>  
    
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
   
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="oi_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> oi </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> oi_infinity </ci>
            <ci> oi </ci>
          </apply>
          <ci> tau_oi </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="alpha_oi_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> alpha_oi </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="millisecond"> 6.2 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 105.2 </cn>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 9.85 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
  
      <apply id="beta_oi_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> beta_oi </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="millisecond"> 7.54 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 8.89 </cn>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -12.87 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="tau_oi_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> tau_oi </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <ci> alpha_oi </ci>
            <ci> beta_oi </ci>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="oi_infinity_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> oi_infinity </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 43.377 </cn>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 6.45 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="ultrarapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current">
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_Kur_d"/>
    
    <variable units="nanoS_per_picoF" name="g_Kur_d"/>
    
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="time"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="E_K"/>
   
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="ua"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="ui"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="i_Kur_d_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_Kur_d </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> g_Kur_d </ci>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <ci> ua </ci>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
          </apply>
          <ci> ui </ci>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> V </ci>
            <ci> E_K </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="g_Kur_d_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> g_Kur_d </ci>
        <apply>
          <plus/>
          <cn cellml:units="nanoS_per_picoF"> 0.00855 </cn> 
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <cn cellml:units="nanoS_per_picoF"> 0.0779 </cn>
            <apply>
              <plus/> 
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <plus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 11.0 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -16.0 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>    
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply> 
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="ultrarapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current_ua_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="ua" initial_value="0.05869"/>
    
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="alpha_ua"/>
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="beta_ua"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" name="tau_ua"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="ua_infinity"/>  
   
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
   
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="ua_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> ua </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> ua_infinity </ci>
            <ci> ua </ci>
          </apply>
          <ci> tau_ua </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="alpha_ua_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> alpha_ua </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <cn cellml:units="per_millisecond"> 1.47 </cn>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <plus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 33.2 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -30.63 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <minus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 27.6 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -30.65 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="beta_ua_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> beta_ua </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <cn cellml:units="per_millisecond"> 0.42 </cn>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
               <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <plus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 26.64 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 2.49 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <plus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 44.41 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 20.36 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply> 
      
      <apply id="tau_ua_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> tau_ua </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <ci> alpha_ua </ci>
            <ci> beta_ua </ci>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="ua_infinity_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> ua_infinity </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 2.81 </cn>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -9.49 </cn>
              </apply> 
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="ultrarapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current_ui_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="ui" initial_value="0.9987"/>
    
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="alpha_ui"/>
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="beta_ui"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" name="tau_ui"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="ui_infinity"/>  
   
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
   
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="ui_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> ui </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> ui_infinity </ci>
            <ci> ui </ci>
          </apply>
          <ci> tau_ui </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="alpha_ui_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> alpha_ui </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="millisecond"> 21.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 185.0 </cn>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -28.0 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
     
      <apply id="beta_ui_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> beta_ui </ci>
        <apply>
          <exp/>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <ci> V </ci>
              <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 158.0 </cn>
            </apply>
            <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 16.0 </cn>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    
      <apply id="tau_ui_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> tau_ui </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <ci> alpha_ui </ci>
            <ci> beta_ui </ci>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="ui_infinity_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> ui_infinity </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 99.45 </cn>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 27.48 </cn>
              </apply> 
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="rapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current">
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_Kr"/>
   
    <variable units="nanoS_per_picoF" name="g_Kr" initial_value="0.06984"/>
    
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="time"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="E_K"/>
    
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="xr"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="i_Kr_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_Kr </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> g_Kr </ci>
          <ci> xr </ci>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.07 </cn>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.58 </cn>
              <apply>
                <plus/>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <plus/>
                      <ci> V </ci>
                      <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 15.0 </cn>
                    </apply>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 22.4 </cn>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> V </ci>
            <ci> E_K </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="rapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current_xr_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="xr" initial_value="0.0000007433"/>
    
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="alpha_xr"/>
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="beta_xr"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" name="tau_xr"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="xr_infinity"/>  
    
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
   
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="xr_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> xr </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> xr_infinity </ci>
            <ci> xr </ci>
          </apply>
          <ci> tau_xr </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="alpha_xr_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> alpha_xr </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt_millisecond"> 0.04 </cn>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <ci> V </ci>
              <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 248.0 </cn>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <minus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 248.0 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -28.0 </cn>
                </apply> 
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>    
        </apply>
      </apply>
     
      <apply id="beta_xr_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> beta_xr </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt_millisecond"> 0.028 </cn>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <ci> V </ci>
              <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 163.0 </cn>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <plus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 163.0 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 21.0 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>    
        </apply>
      </apply>
    
      <apply id="tau_xr_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> tau_xr </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <ci> alpha_xr </ci>
            <ci> beta_xr </ci>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="xr_infinity_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> xr_infinity </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 7.654 </cn>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -5.377 </cn>
              </apply> 
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="slow_delayed_rectifier_K_current">
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_Ks"/>
   
    <variable units="nanoS_per_picoF" name="g_Ks" initial_value="0.0561"/>
    
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="time"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="E_K"/>
    
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="xs"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="i_Ks_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_Ks </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> g_Ks </ci>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <ci> xs </ci>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> V </ci>
            <ci> E_K </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="slow_delayed_rectifier_K_current_xs_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="xs" initial_value="0.01791"/>
    
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="alpha_xs"/>
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="beta_xs"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" name="tau_xs"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="xs_infinity"/>  
    
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
   
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="xs_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> xs </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> xs_infinity </ci>
            <ci> xs </ci>
          </apply>
          <ci> tau_xs </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="alpha_xs_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> alpha_xs </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt_millisecond"> 0.00001 </cn>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <ci> V </ci>
              <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 28.5 </cn>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <plus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 28.5 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -115.0 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>    
        </apply>
      </apply>
     
      <apply id="beta_xs_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> beta_xs </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt_millisecond"> 0.00023 </cn>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <ci> V </ci>
              <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 28.5 </cn>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <plus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 28.5 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 3.3 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>    
        </apply>
      </apply>
    
      <apply id="tau_xs_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> tau_xs </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <ci> alpha_xs </ci>
            <ci> beta_xs </ci>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="xs_infinity_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> xs_infinity </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 13.0 </cn>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -12.0 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -0.5 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="sarcolemmal_Ca_current">
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_Ca"/>
    
    <variable units="nanoS_per_picoF" name="g_Ca" initial_value="0.24"/>
    
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="time"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="Ca_i"/>
   
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="d"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="f"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="f_Ca"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="i_Ca_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_Ca </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> g_Ca </ci>
          <ci> d </ci>
          <ci> f </ci>
          <ci> f_Ca </ci>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> V </ci>
            <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 65.0 </cn>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="sarcolemmal_Ca_current_d_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="d" initial_value="0.000004757"/>
    
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="d_infinity"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" name="tau_d"/>
    
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
   
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="d_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> d </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> d_infinity </ci>
            <ci> d </ci>
          </apply>
          <ci> tau_d </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="d_infinity_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> d_infinity </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 10.0 </cn>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -6.0 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="tau_d_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> tau_d </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <cn cellml:units="millisecond"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 10.0 </cn>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -6.24 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt"> 0.035 </cn>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <ci> V </ci>
              <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 10.0 </cn>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <plus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 10.0 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -6.24 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>    
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
    
  <component name="sarcolemmal_Ca_current_f_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="f" initial_value="0.9999"/>
    
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="f_infinity"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" name="tau_f"/>
    
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
   
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="f_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> f </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> f_infinity </ci>
            <ci> f </ci>
          </apply>
          <ci> tau_f </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="f_infinity_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> f_infinity </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 24.6 </cn>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 6.2 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="tau_f_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> tau_f </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <cn cellml:units="millisecond"> 400.0 </cn>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn> 
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 4.5 </cn>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -0.0007 </cn>
                    <apply>
                      <power/>
                      <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <ci> V </ci>
                        <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 9.0 </cn>
                      </apply>
                      <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="sarcolemmal_Ca_current_f_Ca_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="f_Ca" initial_value="0.7484"/>
    
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="f_Ca_infinity"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" name="tau_f_Ca" initial_value="2.0"/>
    
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_i"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
   
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="f_Ca_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> f_Ca </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> f_Ca_infinity </ci>
            <ci> f_Ca </ci>
          </apply>
          <ci> tau_f_Ca </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="f_Ca_infinity_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> f_Ca_infinity </ci>
        <apply>
          <plus/>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.29 </cn>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.8 </cn>
            <apply>
              <power/>
              <apply>
                <plus/>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <minus/>
                      <ci> Ca_i </ci>
                      <cn cellml:units="millimolar"> 0.00012 </cn>
                    </apply>
                    <cn cellml:units="millimolar"> 0.00006 </cn>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="Ca_activated_Cl_current">
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_Cl_Ca"/>
    
    <variable units="nanoS_per_picoF" name="g_Cl_Ca" initial_value="0.3"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="out" name="E_Cl"/>
    
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="time"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="V"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="Fn"/>
    <variable units="joule_per_mole_kelvin" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
    <variable units="coulomb_per_millimole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
    <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Cl_i"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Cl_o"/>
    
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="q_Ca"/>
      
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="i_Cl_Ca_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_Cl_Ca </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> g_Cl_Ca </ci>
          <ci> q_Ca </ci>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> V </ci>
            <ci> E_Cl </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="E_Cl_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> E_Cl </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> R </ci>
              <ci> T </ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
              <ci> F </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <ln/>                
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <ci> Cl_o </ci>
              <ci> Cl_i </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply> 
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="Ca_activated_Cl_current_q_Ca_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="q_Ca" initial_value="0.0"/>
    
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="q_Ca_infinity"/>
    
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="in" name="Fn"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
   
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="q_Ca_infinity_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> q_Ca_infinity </ci>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <power/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <ci> Fn </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.00000000011 </cn>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="sodium_potassium_pump">
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_NaK"/>
        
    <variable units="millimolar" name="Km_Na_i" initial_value="10.0"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" name="Km_K_o" initial_value="1.5"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" name="i_NaK_max" initial_value="0.6"/>  
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="f_NaK"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="sigma"/>
     
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="K_o"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_i"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_o"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="joule_per_mole_kelvin" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
    <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
    <variable units="coulomb_per_millimole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>  
     
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="i_NaK_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_NaK </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/> 
          <ci> i_NaK_max </ci>
          <ci> f_NaK </ci>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <power/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <ci> Km_Na_i </ci>
                  <ci> Na_i </ci>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.5 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <ci> K_o </ci>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <ci> K_o </ci>
              <ci> Km_K_o </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="f_NaK_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> f_NaK </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.1245 </cn>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -0.1 </cn>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <ci> F </ci>
                      <ci> V </ci>
                    </apply>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <ci> R </ci>
                      <ci> T </ci>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.0365 </cn>
              <ci> sigma </ci>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <ci> F </ci>
                      <ci> V </ci>
                    </apply>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <ci> R </ci>
                      <ci> T </ci>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="sigma_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> sigma </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 7.0 </cn>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <ci> Na_o </ci>
                <cn cellml:units="millimolar"> 67.3 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>                 
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="Na_Ca_exchanger_current">
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_NaCa"/>
    
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" name="I_NaCa_max" initial_value="1600.0"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" name="K_mNa" initial_value="87.5"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" name="K_mCa" initial_value="1.38"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="K_sat" initial_value="0.1"/>
    
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="joule_per_mole_kelvin" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
    <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
    <variable units="coulomb_per_millimole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_i"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_o"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_i"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_o"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="Na_Ca_exchanger">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_NaCa </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci> I_NaCa_max </ci>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.35 </cn>
                      <ci> F </ci>
                      <ci> V </ci>
                    </apply>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <ci> R </ci>
                      <ci> T </ci>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
                <apply>
                  <power/>
                  <ci> Na_i </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
                </apply>
                <ci> Ca_o </ci>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -0.65 </cn>
                      <ci> F </ci>
                      <ci> V </ci>
                    </apply>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <ci> R </ci>
                      <ci> T </ci>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
                <apply>
                  <power/>
                  <ci> Na_o </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
                </apply>
                <ci> Ca_i </ci>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <apply>
              <plus/> 
              <apply>
                <power/>
                <ci> K_mNa </ci>    
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <power/>
                <ci> Na_o </ci>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <ci> K_mCa </ci>
              <ci> Ca_o </ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <ci> K_sat </ci>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -0.65 </cn>
                      <ci> V </ci>
                      <ci> F </ci>
                    </apply>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <ci> R </ci>
                      <ci> T </ci>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="background_currents">
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_B_Na"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_B_Ca"/>
    
    <variable units="nanoS_per_picoF" name="g_B_Na" initial_value="0.000674"/>
    <variable units="nanoS_per_picoF" name="g_B_Ca" initial_value="0.00113"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" name="E_Ca"/>
    
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="E_K"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="E_Na"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_i"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_o"/>
    <variable units="joule_per_mole_kelvin" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
    <variable units="coulomb_per_millimole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
    <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="i_B_Na_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_B_Na </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> g_B_Na </ci>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> V </ci>
            <ci> E_Na </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="i_B_Ca_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_B_Ca </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> g_B_Ca </ci>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> V </ci>
            <ci> E_Ca </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="E_Ca_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> E_Ca </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> R </ci>
              <ci> T </ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
              <ci> F </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <ln/>                
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <ci> Ca_o </ci>
              <ci> Ca_i </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply> 
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="Ca_pump_current">
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_p_Ca"/>
    
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" name="i_p_Ca_max" initial_value="0.275"/>
     
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_i"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="i_p_Ca_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_p_Ca </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> i_p_Ca_max </ci>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <ci> Ca_i </ci>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="millimolar"> 0.0005 </cn>
              <ci> Ca_i </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="Ca_release_current_from_JSR">
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_rel"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" private_interface="out" name="Fn"/>
    
    <variable units="per_millisecond" name="K_rel" initial_value="30.0"/>
    <variable units="micrometre_3" name="V_rel" initial_value="96.48"/>
    
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="time"/>
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_i"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_rel"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_Ca"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_NaCa"/>
    <variable units="coulomb_per_millimole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
    
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="u"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="v"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="w"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">      
      <apply id="i_rel_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_rel </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> K_rel </ci>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <ci> u </ci>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
          </apply>
          <ci> v </ci>
          <ci> w </ci>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> Ca_rel </ci>
            <ci> Ca_i </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="Fn_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> Fn </ci>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.000000000001 </cn>
            <ci> V_rel </ci>
            <ci> i_rel </ci>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.0000000000005 </cn>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
                    <ci> F </ci>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
                <ci> i_Ca </ci>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 5.0 </cn>
                    <ci> F </ci>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
                <ci> i_NaCa </ci>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="Ca_release_current_from_JSR_u_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="u" initial_value="0.0"/>
    
    <variable units="millisecond" name="tau_u"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="u_infinity"/>         
   
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="in" name="Fn"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="u_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> u </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> u_infinity </ci>
            <ci> u </ci>
          </apply>
          <ci> tau_u </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="tau_u_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> tau_u </ci>
        <cn cellml:units="millisecond"> 8.0 </cn>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="u_infinity_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> u_infinity </ci>
        <apply>
          <power/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci> Fn </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.00000000000034175 </cn>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -0.000000000000001367 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="Ca_release_current_from_JSR_v_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="v" initial_value="1.0"/>
   
    <variable units="millisecond" name="tau_v"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="v_infinity"/>         
   
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="in" name="Fn"/>
   
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="v_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> v </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> v_infinity </ci>
            <ci> v </ci>
          </apply>
          <ci> tau_v </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="tau_v_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> tau_v </ci>
        <apply>
          <plus/>
          <cn cellml:units="millisecond"> 1.91 </cn>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <cn cellml:units="millisecond"> 2.09 </cn>
            <apply>
              <power/>
              <apply>
                <plus/>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <minus/>
                      <ci> Fn </ci>
                      <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.00000000000034175 </cn>
                    </apply>
                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -0.000000000000001367 </cn>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="v_infinity_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> v_infinity </ci>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <minus/>
                    <ci> Fn </ci>
                    <cn type="e-notation" cellml:units="dimensionless">6.835<sep/>-14</cn>
				  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -0.000000000000001367 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="Ca_release_current_from_JSR_w_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="w" initial_value="0.9993"/>
   
    <variable units="millisecond" name="tau_w"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="w_infinity"/>         
   
    <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="w_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> w </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> w_infinity </ci>
            <ci> w </ci>
          </apply>
          <ci> tau_w </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="tau_w_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> tau_w </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <cn cellml:units="millisecond"> 6.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 6.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <minus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 7.9 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -5.0 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.3 </cn>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <minus/>
                      <ci> V </ci>
                      <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 7.9 </cn>
                    </apply>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -5.0 </cn>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <ci> V </ci>
              <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 7.9 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="w_infinity_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> w_infinity </ci>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <minus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> 40.0 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt"> -17.0 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="transfer_current_from_NSR_to_JSR">
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_tr"/>
   
    <variable units="millisecond" name="tau_tr" initial_value="180.0"/> 
    
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_rel"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_up"/>
   
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="i_tr_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_tr </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> Ca_up </ci>
            <ci> Ca_rel </ci>
          </apply>
          <ci> tau_tr </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="Ca_uptake_current_by_the_NSR">
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="I_up_max" initial_value="0.005"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_up"/>
   
    <variable units="millimolar" name="K_up" initial_value="0.00092"/> 
     
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_i"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="i_up_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_up </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <ci> I_up_max </ci>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <ci> K_up </ci>
              <ci> Ca_i </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="Ca_leak_current_by_the_NSR">
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="out" name="i_up_leak"/>
    
    <variable units="millimolar" name="Ca_up_max" initial_value="15.0"/>
    
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_up"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="I_up_max"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="i_up_leak_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_up_leak </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> I_up_max </ci>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <ci> Ca_up </ci>
            <ci> Ca_up_max </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="Ca_buffers">
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="CMDN_max" initial_value="0.045"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="TRPN_max" initial_value="0.35"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="CSQN_max" initial_value="10.0"/>
    <variable units="millimolar_per_millisecond" public_interface="out" name="J_Ca_CMDN"/>
    <variable units="millimolar_per_millisecond" public_interface="out" name="J_Ca_TRPN"/>
    <variable units="millimolar_per_millisecond" public_interface="out" name="J_Ca_CSQN"/>
    
    <variable units="millimolar" name="Ca_CMDN" initial_value="0.001856"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" name="Ca_TRPN" initial_value="0.007022"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" name="Ca_CSQN" initial_value="6.432"/>
    
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_i"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_rel"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="Ca_CMDN_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> Ca_CMDN </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 200.0 </cn>
            <ci> Ca_i </ci>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <ci> Ca_CMDN </ci>
                <ci> CMDN_max </ci>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.476 </cn>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <ci> Ca_CMDN </ci>
              <ci> CMDN_max </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="J_Ca_CMDN_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> J_Ca_CMDN </ci>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> Ca_CMDN </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply> 
      
      <apply id="Ca_TRPN_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> Ca_TRPN </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 78.4 </cn>
            <ci> Ca_i </ci>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <ci> Ca_TRPN </ci>
                <ci> TRPN_max </ci>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.392 </cn>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <ci> Ca_TRPN </ci>
              <ci> TRPN_max </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="J_Ca_TRPN_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> J_Ca_TRPN </ci>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> Ca_TRPN </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply> 
      
      <apply id="Ca_CSQN_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> Ca_CSQN </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.48 </cn>
            <ci> Ca_rel </ci>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <ci> Ca_CSQN </ci>
                <ci> CSQN_max </ci>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.4 </cn>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <ci> Ca_CSQN </ci>
              <ci> CSQN_max </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="J_Ca_CSQN_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> J_Ca_CSQN </ci>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> Ca_CSQN </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply> 
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="intracellular_ion_concentrations">
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Na_i" initial_value="11.75"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Ca_i" initial_value="0.0001024"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Cl_i" initial_value="29.26"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="K_i" initial_value="138.4"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Ca_rel" initial_value="1.502"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Ca_up" initial_value="1.502"/>
    
    <variable units="micrometre_3" name="V_i" initial_value="13668.0"/>
    <variable units="micrometre_3" name="V_rel" initial_value="96.48"/>
    <variable units="micrometre_3" name="V_up" initial_value="1109.52"/>
    
    <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="coulomb_per_millimole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_NaK"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_NaCa"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_B_Na"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_Na"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_K1"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_to"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_Kur_d"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_Kr"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_Ks"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_p_Ca"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_Ca"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_Cl_Ca"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_B_Ca"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_up"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_up_leak"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_tr"/>
    <variable units="picoA_per_picoF" public_interface="in" name="i_rel"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="CMDN_max"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="CSQN_max"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="TRPN_max"/>
    <variable units="millimolar_per_millisecond" public_interface="in" name="J_Ca_CMDN"/>
    <variable units="millimolar_per_millisecond" public_interface="in" name="J_Ca_CSQN"/>
    <variable units="millimolar_per_millisecond" public_interface="in" name="J_Ca_TRPN"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="Na_i_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> Na_i </ci>
        </apply> 
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -3.0 </cn>
              <ci> i_NaK </ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
                <ci> i_NaCa </ci>
              </apply>
              <ci> i_B_Na </ci>
              <ci> i_Na </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci> V_i </ci>
            <ci> F </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="K_i_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> K_i </ci>
        </apply> 
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
              <ci> i_NaK </ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <ci> i_K1 </ci>
              <ci> i_to </ci>
              <ci> i_Kur_d </ci>
              <ci> i_Kr </ci>
              <ci> i_Ks </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci> V_i </ci>
            <ci> F </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="Cl_i_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> Cl_i </ci>
        </apply> 
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <ci> i_Cl_Ca </ci>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci> V_i </ci>
            <ci> F </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="Ca_i_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> Ca_i </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <apply>
                <minus/>
                <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
                  <ci> i_NaCa </ci>
                </apply>
                <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci> i_p_Ca </ci>
                  <ci> i_Ca </ci>
                  <ci> i_B_Ca </ci>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
                <ci> V_i </ci>
                <ci> F </ci>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <apply>
                <plus/>
                <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci> V_up </ci>
                  <apply>
                    <minus/>
                    <ci> i_up_leak </ci>
                    <ci> i_up </ci>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
                <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci> i_rel </ci>
                  <ci> V_rel </ci>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <ci> V_i </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> TRPN_max </ci>
              <ci> J_Ca_TRPN </ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> CMDN_max </ci>
              <ci> J_Ca_CMDN </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
      
      <apply id="Ca_up_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> Ca_up </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <ci> i_up </ci>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <ci> i_up_leak </ci>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> i_tr </ci>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <ci> V_rel </ci>
                <ci> V_up </ci>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply> 
      
      <apply id="Ca_rel_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> Ca_rel </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <ci> i_tr </ci>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <ci> i_rel </ci>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 31.0 </cn>
              <ci> J_Ca_CSQN </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply> 
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component name="standard_ionic_concentrations">
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Na_o" initial_value="140.0"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Ca_o" initial_value="1.8"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="K_o" initial_value="5.4"/>
    <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Cl_o" initial_value="132.0"/>
  </component>
  
  <group>
    <relationship_ref relationship="encapsulation"/>
    <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current">
      <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_m_gate"/>
      <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_h_gate"/>
      <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_j_gate"/>
    </component_ref>
    <component_ref component="transient_outward_K_current">
      <component_ref component="transient_outward_K_current_oa_gate"/>
      <component_ref component="transient_outward_K_current_oi_gate"/>
    </component_ref>
    <component_ref component="ultrarapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current">
      <component_ref component="ultrarapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current_ua_gate"/>
      <component_ref component="ultrarapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current_ui_gate"/>
    </component_ref>
    <component_ref component="rapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current">
      <component_ref component="rapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current_xr_gate"/>
    </component_ref>
    <component_ref component="slow_delayed_rectifier_K_current">
      <component_ref component="slow_delayed_rectifier_K_current_xs_gate"/>
    </component_ref>
    <component_ref component="sarcolemmal_Ca_current">
      <component_ref component="sarcolemmal_Ca_current_d_gate"/>
      <component_ref component="sarcolemmal_Ca_current_f_gate"/>
      <component_ref component="sarcolemmal_Ca_current_f_Ca_gate"/>
    </component_ref>
    <component_ref component="Ca_activated_Cl_current">
      <component_ref component="Ca_activated_Cl_current_q_Ca_gate"/>
    </component_ref>
    <component_ref component="Ca_release_current_from_JSR">
      <component_ref component="Ca_release_current_from_JSR_u_gate"/>
      <component_ref component="Ca_release_current_from_JSR_v_gate"/>
      <component_ref component="Ca_release_current_from_JSR_w_gate"/>
    </component_ref>
  </group>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="fast_sodium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="transient_outward_K_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="ultrarapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="rapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="slow_delayed_rectifier_K_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="sarcolemmal_Ca_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="Ca_activated_Cl_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="sodium_potassium_pump"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection> 
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="background_currents"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="Na_Ca_exchanger_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="Ca_pump_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>   
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="Ca_release_current_from_JSR"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="transfer_current_from_NSR_to_JSR"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="Ca_uptake_current_by_the_NSR"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="Ca_leak_current_by_the_NSR"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="Ca_buffers"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="intracellular_ion_concentrations"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="fast_sodium_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Na" variable_1="i_Na"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
  </connection> 
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="time_independent_potassium_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_K1" variable_1="i_K1"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="transient_outward_K_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_to" variable_1="i_to"/>
  </connection> 
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="ultrarapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Kur_d" variable_1="i_Kur_d"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="rapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Kr" variable_1="i_Kr"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="slow_delayed_rectifier_K_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Ks" variable_1="i_Ks"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="sarcolemmal_Ca_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Ca" variable_1="i_Ca"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="Ca_activated_Cl_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Cl_Ca" variable_1="i_Cl_Ca"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="sodium_potassium_pump" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_NaK" variable_1="i_NaK"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="background_currents" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_B_Ca" variable_1="i_B_Ca"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_B_Na" variable_1="i_B_Na"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
  </connection> 
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="Na_Ca_exchanger_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_NaCa" variable_1="i_NaCa"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
  </connection> 
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="Ca_pump_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_p_Ca" variable_1="i_p_Ca"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="membrane" component_1="Ca_release_current_from_JSR"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="intracellular_ion_concentrations" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="intracellular_ion_concentrations" component_1="fast_sodium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Na" variable_1="i_Na"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Na_i" variable_1="Na_i"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="standard_ionic_concentrations" component_1="fast_sodium_current"/>
   <map_variables variable_2="Na_o" variable_1="Na_o"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="background_currents" component_1="fast_sodium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="E_Na" variable_1="E_Na"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="intracellular_ion_concentrations" component_1="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_K1" variable_1="i_K1"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="K_i" variable_1="K_i"/>
  </connection> 
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="standard_ionic_concentrations" component_1="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="K_o" variable_1="K_o"/>
  </connection> 
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="transient_outward_K_current" component_1="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="E_K" variable_1="E_K"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="background_currents" component_1="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="E_K" variable_1="E_K"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="ultrarapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current" component_1="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="E_K" variable_1="E_K"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="rapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current" component_1="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="E_K" variable_1="E_K"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="slow_delayed_rectifier_K_current" component_1="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="E_K" variable_1="E_K"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="intracellular_ion_concentrations" component_1="ultrarapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Kur_d" variable_1="i_Kur_d"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="intracellular_ion_concentrations" component_1="rapid_delayed_rectifier_K_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Kr" variable_1="i_Kr"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="intracellular_ion_concentrations" component_1="slow_delayed_rectifier_K_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Ks" variable_1="i_Ks"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="transient_outward_K_current" component_1="intracellular_ion_concentrations"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_to" variable_1="i_to"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="intracellular_ion_concentrations" component_1="sarcolemmal_Ca_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ca_i" variable_1="Ca_i"/>   
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Ca" variable_1="i_Ca"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="Ca_release_current_from_JSR" component_1="sarcolemmal_Ca_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Ca" variable_1="i_Ca"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="intracellular_ion_concentrations" component_1="Ca_activated_Cl_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Cl_i" variable_1="Cl_i"/>   
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Cl_Ca" variable_1="i_Cl_Ca"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="standard_ionic_concentrations" component_1="Ca_activated_Cl_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Cl_o" variable_1="Cl_o"/>   
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="Ca_release_current_from_JSR" component_1="Ca_activated_Cl_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Fn" variable_1="Fn"/>   
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="intracellular_ion_concentrations" component_1="sodium_potassium_pump"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Na_i" variable_1="Na_i"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_NaK" variable_1="i_NaK"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="standard_ionic_concentrations" component_1="sodium_potassium_pump"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Na_o" variable_1="Na_o"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="K_o" variable_1="K_o"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="intracellular_ion_concentrations" component_1="background_currents"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ca_i" variable_1="Ca_i"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_B_Ca" variable_1="i_B_Ca"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_B_Na" variable_1="i_B_Na"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="standard_ionic_concentrations" component_1="background_currents"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ca_o" variable_1="Ca_o"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="intracellular_ion_concentrations" component_1="Na_Ca_exchanger_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ca_i" variable_1="Ca_i"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Na_i" variable_1="Na_i"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_NaCa" variable_1="i_NaCa"/>
  </connection> 
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="standard_ionic_concentrations" component_1="Na_Ca_exchanger_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ca_o" variable_1="Ca_o"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Na_o" variable_1="Na_o"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="Ca_release_current_from_JSR" component_1="Na_Ca_exchanger_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_NaCa" variable_1="i_NaCa"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="intracellular_ion_concentrations" component_1="Ca_pump_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_p_Ca" variable_1="i_p_Ca"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ca_i" variable_1="Ca_i"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="Ca_release_current_from_JSR" component_1="intracellular_ion_concentrations"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_rel" variable_1="i_rel"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ca_i" variable_1="Ca_i"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ca_rel" variable_1="Ca_rel"/>
  </connection> 
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="transfer_current_from_NSR_to_JSR" component_1="intracellular_ion_concentrations"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_tr" variable_1="i_tr"/>
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