Location: Sakmann, Spindler, Bryant, Linz, Noble, 2000 @ 66b82b2a5353 / sakmann_spindler_bryant_linz_noble_2000_a.cellml

Author:
Catherine Lloyd <c.lloyd@auckland.ac.nz>
Date:
2010-05-20 20:51:49+12:00
Desc:
removed xml:base="" from model a.
Permanent Source URI:
http://models.cellml.org/workspace/sakmann_spindler_bryant_linz_noble_2000/rawfile/66b82b2a5353608aecf1f0dbef41463995602c5f/sakmann_spindler_bryant_linz_noble_2000_a.cellml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!--
This CellML file was generated on 14/01/2008 at 15:28:56 using:

COR (0.9.31.849)
Copyright 2002-2008 Dr Alan Garny
http://COR.physiol.ox.ac.uk/ - COR@physiol.ox.ac.uk

CellML 1.0 was used to generate this cellular model
http://www.CellML.org/
--><model xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" xmlns:cmeta="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/1.0#" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:bqs="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xmlns:ns7="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/simulation/1.0#" cmeta:id="sakmann_2006_epi" name="sakmann_2006_epi">
   
<documentation xmlns="http://cellml.org/tmp-documentation">
<article>
  <articleinfo>
  <title>Distribution of a Persistent Sodium Current Across theVentricular Wall in Guinea Pigs</title>
  <author>
    <firstname>Penny</firstname>
          <surname>Noble</surname>
    <affiliation>
      <shortaffil>Oxford University</shortaffil>
    </affiliation>
  </author>
</articleinfo>
  <section id="sec_status">
    <title>Model Status</title>
    <para>
            This model has been curated and unit-checked and is known to run in COR and PCEnv. This variant is parameterised for the cardiac EPICARDIAL CELL.
          </para>
  </section>
  <sect1 id="sec_structure">
<title>Model Structure</title>

<para>
ABSTRACT: A tetrodotoxin-sensitive persistent sodium current, IpNa, was found in guinea pig ventricular myocytes bywhole-cell patch clamping. This current was characterized in cells derived from the basal left ventricular subendocardium,midmyocardium, and subepicardium. Midmyocardial cells show a statistically significant (P,0.05) smaller IpNathan subendocardial and subepicardial myocytes. There was no significant difference in IpNa current density betweensubepicardial and subendocardial cells. Computer modeling studies support a role of this current in the dispersion ofaction potential duration across the ventricular wall."
</para>

<para>
The original paper reference is cited below:
				</para>
				
				<para>Distribution of a persistent sodium current across the ventricular wall in guinea pigs, Bernhard F.A.S. Sakmann, Anthony J. Spindler, Simon M. Bryant, Klaus W. Linz and Denis Noble, 2000, <emphasis>Circulation Research</emphasis>, 87, (10), 910-914.  <ulink url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&amp;cmd=Retrieve&amp;dopt=AbstractPlus&amp;list_uids=11073887&amp;query_hl=1&amp;itool=pubmed_docsum">PubMed ID: 11073887</ulink>
				</para>
				
				<informalfigure float="0" id="fig_reaction_diagram">
					<mediaobject>
						<imageobject>
							<objectinfo>
								<title>model diagram</title>
							</objectinfo>
							<imagedata fileref="sakmann_2000.png"/>
						</imageobject>
					</mediaobject>
					<caption>Schematic diagram of the Sakmann et al. 2000 cardiac cell model.</caption>
				</informalfigure>
			</sect1>
		</article>
	</documentation>

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                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.00061</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">38.9</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.145</cn>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">38.9</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>xr</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>xr_inf</ci>
                  <ci>xr</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>tau_xr</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current">
      <variable cmeta:id="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current_i_Ks" name="i_Ks" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="g_Ks" units="microS"/>
      <variable name="E_Ks" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="Cm" public_interface="in" units="microF"/>
      <variable name="time" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="xs" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>g_Ks</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>Cm</ci>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="microS_per_microF">26.6</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ks</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_Ks</ci>
               <apply>
                  <power/>
                  <ci>xs</ci>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_Ks</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current_xs_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0.0381477" name="xs" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="xs_inf" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="tau_xs" units="second"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>xs_inf</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <ci>V</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">1.5</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">16.7</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>tau_xs</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="second">0.001</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.0000719</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">30</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.148</cn>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">30</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.000131</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">30</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.0687</cn>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">30</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>xs</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>xs_inf</ci>
                  <ci>xs</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>tau_xs</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="fast_sodium_current">
      <variable cmeta:id="fast_sodium_current_i_Na" name="i_Na" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="g_Na" units="microS"/>
      <variable initial_value="1075" name="nachanneldensity" units="per_microF"/>
      <variable initial_value="20" name="gnachannel" units="microS"/>
      <variable name="E_mh" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="Cm" public_interface="in" units="microF"/>
      <variable name="time" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="m" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="h" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="proton" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>g_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>nachanneldensity</ci>
                  <ci>Cm</ci>
                  <ci>gnachannel</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1.26</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <ci>proton</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1000</cn>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2.5119e-6</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.34</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1.58</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_Na</ci>
               <apply>
                  <power/>
                  <ci>m</ci>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
               </apply>
               <ci>h</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_mh</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="fast_sodium_current_m_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0.0026891" name="m" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="alpha_m" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="beta_m" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable initial_value="1e-5" name="delta_m" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="E0_m" units="millivolt"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E0_m</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>V</ci>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">41</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_m</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">2000</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <apply>
                        <abs/>
                        <ci>E0_m</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>delta_m</ci>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">200</cn>
                        <ci>E0_m</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.1</cn>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>E0_m</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_m</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">8000</cn>
               <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.056</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>V</ci>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">66</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>m</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_m</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>m</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_m</ci>
                  <ci>m</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="fast_sodium_current_h_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0.9873107" name="h" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="alpha_h" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="beta_h" units="per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="3.98e-5" name="proton" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="shifth" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>shifth</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">32.7</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <ci>proton</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1000</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2.5119e-6</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">32.18</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_h</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">20</cn>
               <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.125</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">75</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>shifth</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_h</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">2000</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">320</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.1</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">75</cn>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>shifth</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>h</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_h</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>h</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_h</ci>
                  <ci>h</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="persistent_sodium_current">
      <variable cmeta:id="persistent_sodium_current_i_p_Na" name="i_p_Na" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.005" name="g_pna" units="microS"/>
      <variable name="E_Na" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="Cm" public_interface="in" units="microF"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_p_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Cm</ci>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_microF">1000000</cn>
                     <ci>g_pna</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <ci>V</ci>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">51.5397</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">58.0111</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">7.0332</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1000</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="sodium_background_current">
      <variable cmeta:id="sodium_background_current_i_b_Na" name="i_b_Na" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0006" name="g_bna" units="microS"/>
      <variable name="Na_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="E_Na" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_b_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_bna</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_Na</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_Ca_channel">
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_Ca_cyt" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_K_cyt" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_Na_cyt" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_Ca_ds" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_K_ds" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_Na_ds" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable cmeta:id="L_type_Ca_channel_i_Ca_L" name="i_Ca_L" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.11" name="P_Ca_L" units="nanoA_per_millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.002" name="P_CaK" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.01" name="P_CaNa" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="Ca_o" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_i" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_ds" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="K_o" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="K_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Na_o" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Na_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="R" public_interface="in" units="joule_per_kilomole_kelvin"/>
      <variable name="F" public_interface="in" units="coulomb_per_mole"/>
      <variable name="T" public_interface="in" units="kelvin"/>
      <variable name="time" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="d" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="f" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="f2" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="f2ds" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="100000" name="Km_f2" private_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.001" name="Km_f2ds" private_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="20" name="R_decay" private_interface="out" public_interface="out" units="per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="1" name="FrICa" units="dimensionless"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca_cyt</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <ci>FrICa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">4</cn>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>f</ci>
                        <ci>f2</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>F</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>R</ci>
                        <ci>T</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">100</cn>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_K_cyt</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <ci>FrICa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>P_CaK</ci>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>f</ci>
                        <ci>f2</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>F</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>R</ci>
                        <ci>T</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>K_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>K_o</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_Na_cyt</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <ci>FrICa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>P_CaNa</ci>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>f</ci>
                        <ci>f2</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>F</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>R</ci>
                        <ci>T</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Na_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Na_o</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca_ds</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>FrICa</ci>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">4</cn>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>f</ci>
                        <ci>f2ds</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>F</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>R</ci>
                        <ci>T</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">100</cn>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_K_ds</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>FrICa</ci>
                        <ci>P_CaK</ci>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>f</ci>
                        <ci>f2ds</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>F</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>R</ci>
                        <ci>T</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>K_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>K_o</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_Na_ds</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>FrICa</ci>
                        <ci>P_CaNa</ci>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>f</ci>
                        <ci>f2ds</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>F</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>R</ci>
                        <ci>T</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Na_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Na_o</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca_cyt</ci>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_K_cyt</ci>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_Na_cyt</ci>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca_ds</ci>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_K_ds</ci>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_Na_ds</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_Ca_channel_d_gate">
      <variable initial_value="1.44e-4" name="d" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="alpha_d" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="beta_d" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="E0_d" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable initial_value="3" name="speed_d" units="dimensionless"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E0_d</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">24</cn>
               </apply>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">5</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_d</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">120</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <apply>
                        <abs/>
                        <ci>E0_d</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">0.0001</cn>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">30</cn>
                        <ci>E0_d</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <ci>E0_d</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">7.2</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_d</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">120</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <apply>
                        <abs/>
                        <ci>E0_d</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">0.0001</cn>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">12</cn>
                        <ci>E0_d</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <ci>E0_d</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2.5</cn>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">7.2</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>d</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>speed_d</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>alpha_d</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>beta_d</ci>
                     <ci>d</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_Ca_channel_f_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0.9999993" name="f" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="alpha_f" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="beta_f" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.3" name="speed_f" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0001" name="delta_f" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="E0_f" units="millivolt"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E0_f</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>V</ci>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">34</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_f</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">25</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <apply>
                        <abs/>
                        <ci>E0_f</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>delta_f</ci>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">6.25</cn>
                        <ci>E0_f</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <ci>E0_f</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">5.1</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_f</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">12</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <plus/>
                              <ci>V</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">34</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">5.1</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>f</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>speed_f</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>alpha_f</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                        <ci>f</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>beta_f</ci>
                     <ci>f</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_Ca_channel_f2_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0.254433" name="f2" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="Km_f2" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>f2</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>Km_f2</ci>
                           <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>f2</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_Ca_channel_f2ds_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0.9292189" name="f2ds" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="Km_f2ds" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="R_decay" public_interface="in" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="Ca_ds" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>f2ds</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>R_decay</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>Km_f2ds</ci>
                           <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>f2ds</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="calcium_background_current">
      <variable cmeta:id="calcium_background_current_i_b_Ca" name="i_b_Ca" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.00025" name="g_bca" units="microS"/>
      <variable name="E_Ca" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_b_Ca</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_bca</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_Ca</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="transient_outward_current">
      <variable cmeta:id="transient_outward_current_i_to" name="i_to" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.005" name="g_to" units="microS"/>
      <variable initial_value="0" name="g_tos" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="E_K" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="V" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="s" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="r" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_to</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_to</ci>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>g_tos</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>s</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                        <ci>g_tos</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <ci>r</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_K</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="transient_outward_current_s_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0.7352365" name="s" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="alpha_s" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="beta_s" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_s</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">0.033</cn>
               <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <ci>V</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">17</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_s</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">33</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.125</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">10</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>s</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_s</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>s</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_s</ci>
                  <ci>s</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="transient_outward_current_r_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0" name="r" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>r</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">333</cn>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <plus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">4</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">5</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>r</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="sodium_potassium_pump">
      <variable cmeta:id="sodium_potassium_pump_i_NaK" name="i_NaK" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.7" name="i_NaK_max" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="1" name="K_mK" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="40" name="K_mNa" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="K_o" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Na_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_NaK</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>i_NaK_max</ci>
                        <ci>K_o</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>K_mK</ci>
                        <ci>K_o</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>Na_i</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>K_mNa</ci>
                  <ci>Na_i</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="sodium_calcium_exchanger">
      <variable cmeta:id="sodium_calcium_exchanger_i_NaCa" name="i_NaCa" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_NaCa_cyt" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_NaCa_ds" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.00012" name="k_NaCa" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="3" name="n_NaCa" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0" name="d_NaCa" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.5" name="gamma" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.001" name="FRiNaCa" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="Na_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Na_o" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_ds" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_o" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="R" public_interface="in" units="joule_per_kilomole_kelvin"/>
      <variable name="F" public_interface="in" units="coulomb_per_mole"/>
      <variable name="T" public_interface="in" units="kelvin"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_NaCa_cyt</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>FRiNaCa</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>k_NaCa</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>gamma</ci>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <ci>F</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>R</ci>
                                 <ci>T</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <ci>Na_i</ci>
                           <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>gamma</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <ci>F</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>R</ci>
                                 <ci>T</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <ci>Na_o</ci>
                           <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar4">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>d_NaCa</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <power/>
                                 <ci>Na_o</ci>
                                 <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <power/>
                                 <ci>Na_i</ci>
                                 <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar">0.0069</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_NaCa_ds</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>FRiNaCa</ci>
                  <ci>k_NaCa</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>gamma</ci>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <ci>F</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>R</ci>
                                 <ci>T</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <ci>Na_i</ci>
                           <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>gamma</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <ci>F</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>R</ci>
                                 <ci>T</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <ci>Na_o</ci>
                           <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar4">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>d_NaCa</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <power/>
                                 <ci>Na_o</ci>
                                 <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <power/>
                                 <ci>Na_i</ci>
                                 <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar">0.0069</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_NaCa</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>i_NaCa_cyt</ci>
               <ci>i_NaCa_ds</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="sarcoplasmic_reticulum_calcium_pump">
      <variable cmeta:id="sarcoplasmic_reticulum_calcium_pump_i_up" name="i_up" public_interface="out" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable cmeta:id="sarcoplasmic_reticulum_calcium_pump_K_1" name="K_1" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="K_2" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0003" name="K_cyca" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.4" name="K_xcs" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.5" name="K_srca" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.4" name="alpha_up" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.03" name="beta_up" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable name="Ca_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_up" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>K_1</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>K_cyca</ci>
                  <ci>K_xcs</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>K_srca</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>K_2</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>Ca_i</ci>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>Ca_up</ci>
                  <ci>K_1</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>K_cyca</ci>
                  <ci>K_xcs</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>K_cyca</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_up</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     <ci>K_2</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>alpha_up</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>Ca_up</ci>
                        <ci>K_1</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>K_2</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>beta_up</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="calcium_translocation">
      <variable cmeta:id="calcium_translocation_i_trans" name="i_trans" public_interface="out" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable name="Ca_rel" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_up" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_trans</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">50</cn>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>Ca_up</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_rel</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="calcium_release">
      <variable cmeta:id="calcium_release_i_rel" name="i_rel" public_interface="out" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable name="VoltDep" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="RegBindSite" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="CaiReg" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="CadsReg" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="ActRate" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="InactRate" units="per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.05" name="K_leak_rate" units="per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="250" name="K_m_rel" units="per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0005" name="K_m_Ca_cyt" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.01" name="K_m_Ca_ds" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="PrecFrac" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0101647" name="ActFrac" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.9584464" name="ProdFrac" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="SpeedRel" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="Ca_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_ds" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_rel" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>VoltDep</ci>
            <apply>
               <exp/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.08</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">40</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>CaiReg</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <ci>Ca_i</ci>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  <ci>K_m_Ca_cyt</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>CadsReg</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
                  <ci>K_m_Ca_ds</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>RegBindSite</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>CaiReg</ci>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>CaiReg</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>CadsReg</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>ActRate</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">0</cn>
                  <ci>VoltDep</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">500</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <power/>
                     <ci>RegBindSite</ci>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>InactRate</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">60</cn>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">500</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <power/>
                     <ci>RegBindSite</ci>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>SpeedRel</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">5</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>PrecFrac</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <ci>ActFrac</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>ProdFrac</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>ActFrac</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>PrecFrac</ci>
                  <ci>SpeedRel</ci>
                  <ci>ActRate</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>ActFrac</ci>
                  <ci>SpeedRel</ci>
                  <ci>InactRate</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>ProdFrac</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>ActFrac</ci>
                  <ci>SpeedRel</ci>
                  <ci>InactRate</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>SpeedRel</ci>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">1</cn>
                  <ci>ProdFrac</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_rel</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <apply>
                        <power/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <ci>ActFrac</ci>
                           <apply>
                              <plus/>
                              <ci>ActFrac</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.25</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>K_m_rel</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>K_leak_rate</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>Ca_rel</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="extracellular_sodium_concentration">
      <variable initial_value="140" name="Na_o" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
   </component>
   <component name="intracellular_sodium_concentration">
      <variable initial_value="5.6633707" name="Na_i" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="V_i" public_interface="in" units="micrometre3"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="F" public_interface="in" units="coulomb_per_mole"/>
      <variable name="i_Na" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_b_Na" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_p_Na" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_Na_cyt" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_Na_ds" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_NaK" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_NaCa_cyt" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Na_i</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="mA_nA">1</cn>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="litre_micrometre3">1</cn>
                     <ci>V_i</ci>
                     <ci>F</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>i_Na</ci>
                  <ci>i_p_Na</ci>
                  <ci>i_b_Na</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                     <ci>i_NaK</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                     <ci>i_NaCa_cyt</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>i_Ca_L_Na_cyt</ci>
                  <ci>i_Ca_L_Na_ds</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="extracellular_calcium_concentration">
      <variable initial_value="2" name="Ca_o" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
   </component>
   <component name="extracellular_potassium_concentration">
      <variable initial_value="4" name="K_o" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
   </component>
   <component name="intracellular_potassium_concentration">
      <variable initial_value="138.7963753" name="K_i" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="V_i" public_interface="in" units="micrometre3"/>
      <variable name="i_K1" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Kr" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ks" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_K_cyt" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_K_ds" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_to" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_NaK" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="F" public_interface="in" units="coulomb_per_mole"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>K_i</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="mA_nA">1</cn>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="litre_micrometre3">1</cn>
                     <ci>V_i</ci>
                     <ci>F</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <ci>i_K1</ci>
                     <ci>i_Kr</ci>
                     <ci>i_Ks</ci>
                     <ci>i_Ca_L_K_cyt</ci>
                     <ci>i_Ca_L_K_ds</ci>
                     <ci>i_to</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                     <ci>i_NaK</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="intracellular_calcium_concentration">
      <variable initial_value="5.44e-5" name="Ca_i" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0018991" name="Ca_ds" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.7625025" name="Ca_up" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.7368094" name="Ca_rel" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0018544" name="Ca_Calmod" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0012852" name="Ca_Trop" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.02" name="Calmod" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.05" name="Trop" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="100000" name="alpha_Calmod" units="per_millimolar_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="50" name="beta_Calmod" units="per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="100000" name="alpha_Trop" units="per_millimolar_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="200" name="beta_Trop" units="per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="12" name="radius" units="micrometre"/>
      <variable initial_value="74" name="length" units="micrometre"/>
      <variable name="V_i" public_interface="out" units="micrometre3"/>
      <variable name="V_Cell" units="micrometre3"/>
      <variable name="V_i_ratio" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.1" name="V_ds_ratio" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.1" name="V_rel_ratio" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.4" name="V_e_ratio" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.01" name="V_up_ratio" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="10" name="Kdecay" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="i_up" public_interface="in" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable name="i_trans" public_interface="in" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable name="i_rel" public_interface="in" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable name="i_NaCa_cyt" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_NaCa_ds" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_Ca_cyt" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L_Ca_ds" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_b_Ca" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="F" public_interface="in" units="coulomb_per_mole"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_Cell</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3.141592654</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <power/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <ci>radius</ci>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1000</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>length</ci>
               </apply>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1000</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_i_ratio</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>V_e_ratio</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>V_up_ratio</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>V_rel_ratio</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_i</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>V_Cell</ci>
               <ci>V_i_ratio</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_i</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="mA_nA">1</cn>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="litre_micrometre3">1</cn>
                                 <ci>V_i</ci>
                                 <ci>F</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca_cyt</ci>
                                 <ci>i_b_Ca</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 <ci>i_NaCa_cyt</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
                           <ci>V_ds_ratio</ci>
                           <ci>Kdecay</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>i_rel</ci>
                              <ci>V_rel_ratio</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <ci>V_i_ratio</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <diff/>
                        <bvar>
                           <ci>time</ci>
                        </bvar>
                        <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <diff/>
                     <bvar>
                        <ci>time</ci>
                     </bvar>
                     <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <ci>i_up</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="mA_nA">1</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca_ds</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="litre_micrometre3">1</cn>
                     <ci>V_ds_ratio</ci>
                     <ci>V_i</ci>
                     <ci>F</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
                  <ci>Kdecay</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_up</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>V_i_ratio</ci>
                     <ci>V_up_ratio</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>i_up</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>i_trans</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_rel</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>V_up_ratio</ci>
                     <ci>V_rel_ratio</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>i_trans</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>i_rel</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_Calmod</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>Calmod</ci>
                     <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_Calmod</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_Trop</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>Trop</ci>
                     <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_Trop</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <group>
      <relationship_ref relationship="containment"/>
      <component_ref component="membrane">
         <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current">
            <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_m_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_h_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel">
            <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_d_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_f_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_f2_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_f2ds_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current">
            <component_ref component="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current_xr_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current">
            <component_ref component="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current_xs_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
         <component_ref component="persistent_sodium_current"/>
         <component_ref component="sodium_background_current"/>
         <component_ref component="calcium_background_current"/>
         <component_ref component="transient_outward_current">
            <component_ref component="transient_outward_current_s_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="transient_outward_current_r_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="sodium_potassium_pump"/>
         <component_ref component="sodium_calcium_exchanger"/>
         <component_ref component="sarcoplasmic_reticulum_calcium_pump"/>
         <component_ref component="calcium_translocation"/>
         <component_ref component="calcium_release"/>
         <component_ref component="extracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="extracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="extracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="reversal_potentials"/>
      </component_ref>
   </group>
   <group>
      <relationship_ref relationship="encapsulation"/>
      <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current">
         <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_m_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_h_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
      <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel">
         <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_d_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_f_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_f2_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_f2ds_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
      <component_ref component="transient_outward_current">
         <component_ref component="transient_outward_current_s_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="transient_outward_current_r_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
      <component_ref component="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current">
         <component_ref component="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current_xr_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
      <component_ref component="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current">
         <component_ref component="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current_xs_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
   </group>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="reversal_potentials" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="fast_sodium_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_Ca_channel" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="time_independent_potassium_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="persistent_sodium_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_background_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_background_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="transient_outward_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_potassium_pump" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_calcium_exchanger" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="intracellular_sodium_concentration" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="intracellular_potassium_concentration" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="intracellular_calcium_concentration" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sarcoplasmic_reticulum_calcium_pump" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_translocation" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_release" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_release" component_2="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="reversal_potentials"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="R" variable_2="R"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="T" variable_2="T"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="F" variable_2="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="fast_sodium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Na" variable_2="i_Na"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Cm" variable_2="Cm"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="L_type_Ca_channel"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L_Ca_cyt" variable_2="i_Ca_L_Ca_cyt"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L_Ca_ds" variable_2="i_Ca_L_Ca_ds"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L_Na_cyt" variable_2="i_Ca_L_Na_cyt"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L_Na_ds" variable_2="i_Ca_L_Na_ds"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L_K_cyt" variable_2="i_Ca_L_K_cyt"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L_K_ds" variable_2="i_Ca_L_K_ds"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="R" variable_2="R"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="T" variable_2="T"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="F" variable_2="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Kr" variable_2="i_Kr"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Cm" variable_2="Cm"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ks" variable_2="i_Ks"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Cm" variable_2="Cm"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="transient_outward_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_to" variable_2="i_to"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_K1" variable_2="i_K1"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="R" variable_2="R"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="T" variable_2="T"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="F" variable_2="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="persistent_sodium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_p_Na" variable_2="i_p_Na"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Cm" variable_2="Cm"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="sodium_background_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_b_Na" variable_2="i_b_Na"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="calcium_background_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_b_Ca" variable_2="i_b_Ca"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="sodium_potassium_pump"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_NaK" variable_2="i_NaK"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="sodium_calcium_exchanger"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_NaCa_cyt" variable_2="i_NaCa_cyt"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_NaCa_ds" variable_2="i_NaCa_ds"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="R" variable_2="R"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="T" variable_2="T"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="F" variable_2="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="F" variable_2="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="F" variable_2="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="F" variable_2="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="reversal_potentials" component_2="sodium_background_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="E_Na" variable_2="E_Na"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="reversal_potentials" component_2="persistent_sodium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="E_Na" variable_2="E_Na"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="reversal_potentials" component_2="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="E_K" variable_2="E_K"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="reversal_potentials" component_2="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="E_K" variable_2="E_K"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="reversal_potentials" component_2="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="E_Ks" variable_2="E_Ks"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="reversal_potentials" component_2="transient_outward_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="E_K" variable_2="E_K"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="reversal_potentials" component_2="calcium_background_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="E_Ca" variable_2="E_Ca"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="reversal_potentials" component_2="fast_sodium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="E_mh" variable_2="E_mh"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="reversal_potentials" component_2="extracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="K_o" variable_2="K_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="reversal_potentials" component_2="extracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_o" variable_2="Na_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="reversal_potentials" component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="K_i" variable_2="K_i"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="reversal_potentials" component_2="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_i" variable_2="Na_i"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="reversal_potentials" component_2="extracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_o" variable_2="Ca_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="reversal_potentials" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_i" variable_2="Ca_i"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="time_independent_potassium_current" component_2="extracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="K_o" variable_2="K_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="time_independent_potassium_current" component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_K1" variable_2="i_K1"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current" component_2="extracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="K_o" variable_2="K_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current" component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Kr" variable_2="i_Kr"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current" component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ks" variable_2="i_Ks"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="fast_sodium_current" component_2="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Na" variable_2="i_Na"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_background_current" component_2="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_b_Na" variable_2="i_b_Na"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_i" variable_2="Na_i"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="persistent_sodium_current" component_2="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_p_Na" variable_2="i_p_Na"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_Ca_channel" component_2="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L_Na_cyt" variable_2="i_Ca_L_Na_cyt"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L_Na_ds" variable_2="i_Ca_L_Na_ds"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_i" variable_2="Na_i"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_Ca_channel" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L_Ca_cyt" variable_2="i_Ca_L_Ca_cyt"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L_Ca_ds" variable_2="i_Ca_L_Ca_ds"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_i" variable_2="Ca_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_ds" variable_2="Ca_ds"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_Ca_channel" component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L_K_cyt" variable_2="i_Ca_L_K_cyt"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L_K_ds" variable_2="i_Ca_L_K_ds"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="K_i" variable_2="K_i"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_Ca_channel" component_2="extracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="K_o" variable_2="K_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_Ca_channel" component_2="extracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_o" variable_2="Na_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_Ca_channel" component_2="extracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_o" variable_2="Ca_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_background_current" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_b_Ca" variable_2="i_b_Ca"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_potassium_pump" component_2="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_NaK" variable_2="i_NaK"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_i" variable_2="Na_i"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_potassium_pump" component_2="extracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="K_o" variable_2="K_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_potassium_pump" component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_NaK" variable_2="i_NaK"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="transient_outward_current" component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_to" variable_2="i_to"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_calcium_exchanger" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_NaCa_cyt" variable_2="i_NaCa_cyt"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_NaCa_ds" variable_2="i_NaCa_ds"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_i" variable_2="Ca_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_ds" variable_2="Ca_ds"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_calcium_exchanger" component_2="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_NaCa_cyt" variable_2="i_NaCa_cyt"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_i" variable_2="Na_i"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_calcium_exchanger" component_2="extracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Na_o" variable_2="Na_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_calcium_exchanger" component_2="extracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_o" variable_2="Ca_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sarcoplasmic_reticulum_calcium_pump" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_up" variable_2="i_up"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_i" variable_2="Ca_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_up" variable_2="Ca_up"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_translocation" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_trans" variable_2="i_trans"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_rel" variable_2="Ca_rel"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_up" variable_2="Ca_up"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_release" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_rel" variable_2="i_rel"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_rel" variable_2="Ca_rel"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_i" variable_2="Ca_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_ds" variable_2="Ca_ds"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current" component_2="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current_xr_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="xr" variable_2="xr"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current" component_2="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current_xs_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="xs" variable_2="xs"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="fast_sodium_current" component_2="fast_sodium_current_m_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="m" variable_2="m"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="fast_sodium_current" component_2="fast_sodium_current_h_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="h" variable_2="h"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="proton" variable_2="proton"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_Ca_channel" component_2="L_type_Ca_channel_d_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="d" variable_2="d"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_Ca_channel" component_2="L_type_Ca_channel_f_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="f" variable_2="f"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_Ca_channel" component_2="L_type_Ca_channel_f2_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="f2" variable_2="f2"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_i" variable_2="Ca_i"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Km_f2" variable_2="Km_f2"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_Ca_channel" component_2="L_type_Ca_channel_f2ds_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="f2ds" variable_2="f2ds"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Ca_ds" variable_2="Ca_ds"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="Km_f2ds" variable_2="Km_f2ds"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="R_decay" variable_2="R_decay"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="transient_outward_current" component_2="transient_outward_current_s_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="s" variable_2="s"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="transient_outward_current" component_2="transient_outward_current_r_gate"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="r" variable_2="r"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="intracellular_sodium_concentration" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V_i" variable_2="V_i"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="intracellular_potassium_concentration" component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V_i" variable_2="V_i"/>
   </connection>

<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#f8f2af15-4413-4c2d-bfe9-9942756ce85c"><Family xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Linz</Family><Given xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">KW</Given></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#bd481326-86a3-453a-8764-9fe2f90bad33"><W3CDTF xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xml:lang="en">2000-11-00 00:00</W3CDTF></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#9b6415ea-1181-47a2-8a82-60815548ba31"><FN xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en"/></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#03c86712-552d-4e14-a064-eba3c5c4eb0f"><FN xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Penny Noble</FN></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#7fee8b97-9013-472b-97a9-49c43cb178fe"><rdf:type><rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/></rdf:type><N 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rdf:about="rdf:#82e5038e-719c-4b34-9352-c211e3c86b8e"><first_page xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" xml:lang="en">910</first_page><last_page xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" xml:lang="en">914</last_page><volume xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" xml:lang="en">87</volume><creator xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#33850866-0617-490b-a3c8-89cb17cade5c"/></creator><title xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xml:lang="en">Distribution of a persistent sodium current across the ventricular wall in guinea pigs.</title><issued xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#bd481326-86a3-453a-8764-9fe2f90bad33"/></issued><Journal xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#0a432094-f0d1-4265-b319-83bcff127a55"/></Journal></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#092a3818-2612-4ea0-837a-efb4f111f4f7"><Other xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en"/><Family xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Noble</Family><Given xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Penny</Given></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#f982bd03-ce34-4427-b00d-355ee5018151"><cmeta:modifier><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#a43dc1fd-54dc-44b3-b2bc-ce9ae1c6f49c"/></cmeta:modifier><modified xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c08c6f3d-8dbb-4048-8201-1007e4971c4e"/></modified><rdf:value xml:lang="en">Corrections to naming of the models and IK equations.</rdf:value></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#d3a80f00-9682-40d7-a1cc-0b570fad3696"><rdf:type><rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/></rdf:type><N xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#f8f2af15-4413-4c2d-bfe9-9942756ce85c"/></N></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:nodeID="n4"><rdf:value><rdf:Description rdf:nodeID="n3"/></rdf:value><subject_type xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" xml:lang="en">keyword</subject_type></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c08c6f3d-8dbb-4048-8201-1007e4971c4e"><W3CDTF xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xml:lang="en">2008-05-13T04:01:55+12:00</W3CDTF></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#97f8c0fd-21ec-41ce-a421-a23b08f01e96"><rdf:value xml:lang="en"/><creator xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#9b6415ea-1181-47a2-8a82-60815548ba31"/></creator></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#f7a8d531-a1f1-4f6d-89f9-d32011269e4b"><rdf:type><rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/></rdf:type><N xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#fcb1f38b-45b8-4482-bfb3-d5452df3df2c"/></N></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#da405a53-d965-4a4b-90ad-9eb9416ab82a"><Family xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Spindler</Family><Given xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">AJ</Given></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6ba57996-9e63-4631-babd-53f56fdf6af1"><Family xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Sakmann</Family><Given xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">BF</Given></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#fcb1f38b-45b8-4482-bfb3-d5452df3df2c"><Family xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Noble</Family><Given xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">D</Given></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c426907a-109b-4958-9751-57e559daae2d"><rdf:value xml:lang="en">This model was based on the paper "Distribution of a Persistent Sodium Current Across theVentricular Wall in Guinea Pigs" by Bernhard F.A.S. Sakmann, Anthony J. Spindler, Simon M. Bryant, Klaus W. Linz and Denis Noble. 
Reference: Circulation Research 2000 Nov 10;87(10):910-4. 
The following is the abstract from the paper:
"A tetrodotoxin-sensitive persistent sodium current, IpNa, was found in guinea pig ventricular myocytes bywhole-cell patch clamping. This current was characterized in cells derived from the basal left ventricular subendocardium,midmyocardium, and subepicardium. Midmyocardial cells show a statistically significant (P,0.05) smaller IpNathan subendocardial and subepicardial myocytes. There was no significant difference in IpNa current density betweensubepicardial and subendocardial cells. 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xml:lang="en">Circulation Research</title></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:nodeID="n5"><endingValue xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/simulation/1.0#" xml:lang="en">2</endingValue><pointDensity xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/simulation/1.0#nonstandard-" xml:lang="en">10000</pointDensity><maximumStepSize xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/simulation/1.0#" xml:lang="en">0.1</maximumStepSize></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#20f48b99-19a9-498b-99ab-94ed6cebe2fe"><Family xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">Bryant</Family><Given xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xml:lang="en">SM</Given></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="#sakmann_2006_epi"><simulation xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/simulation/1.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:nodeID="n1"/></simulation><reference xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#"><rdf:Description rdf:nodeID="n6"/></reference><reference 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