Location: Sakmann, Spindler, Bryant, Linz, Noble, 2000 @ 66b82b2a5353 / sakmann_spindler_bryant_linz_noble_2000_c.cellml

Author:
Catherine Lloyd <c.lloyd@auckland.ac.nz>
Date:
2010-05-20 20:51:49+12:00
Desc:
removed xml:base="" from model a.
Permanent Source URI:
http://models.cellml.org/workspace/sakmann_spindler_bryant_linz_noble_2000/rawfile/66b82b2a5353608aecf1f0dbef41463995602c5f/sakmann_spindler_bryant_linz_noble_2000_c.cellml

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<!--
This CellML file was generated on 14/01/2008 at 15:17:17 using:

COR (0.9.31.849)
Copyright 2002-2008 Dr Alan Garny
http://COR.physiol.ox.ac.uk/ - COR@physiol.ox.ac.uk

CellML 1.0 was used to generate this cellular model
http://www.CellML.org/
--><model xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" xmlns:cmeta="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/1.0#" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:bqs="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" xmlns:ns7="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/simulation/1.0#" cmeta:id="sakmann_2006_M" name="sakmann_2006_M">
   
<documentation xmlns="http://cellml.org/tmp-documentation">
<article>
  <articleinfo>
  <title>Distribution of a Persistent Sodium Current Across theVentricular Wall in Guinea Pigs</title>
  <author>
    <firstname>Penny</firstname>
          <surname>Noble</surname>
    <affiliation>
      <shortaffil>Oxford University</shortaffil>
    </affiliation>
  </author>
</articleinfo>
  <section id="sec_status">
    <title>Model Status</title>
    <para>
            This model has been curated and unit-checked and is known to run in COR and PCEnv. This variant is parameterised for the cardiac M CELL.
          </para>
  </section>
  <sect1 id="sec_structure">
<title>Model Structure</title>

<para>
ABSTRACT: A tetrodotoxin-sensitive persistent sodium current, IpNa, was found in guinea pig ventricular myocytes bywhole-cell patch clamping. This current was characterized in cells derived from the basal left ventricular subendocardium,midmyocardium, and subepicardium. Midmyocardial cells show a statistically significant (P,0.05) smaller IpNathan subendocardial and subepicardial myocytes. There was no significant difference in IpNa current density betweensubepicardial and subendocardial cells. Computer modeling studies support a role of this current in the dispersion ofaction potential duration across the ventricular wall."
</para>

<para>
The original paper reference is cited below:
				</para>
				
				<para>Distribution of a persistent sodium current across the ventricular wall in guinea pigs, Bernhard F.A.S. Sakmann, Anthony J. Spindler, Simon M. Bryant, Klaus W. Linz and Denis Noble, 2000, <emphasis>Circulation Research</emphasis>, 87, (10), 910-914.  <ulink url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&amp;cmd=Retrieve&amp;dopt=AbstractPlus&amp;list_uids=11073887&amp;query_hl=1&amp;itool=pubmed_docsum">PubMed ID: 11073887</ulink>
				</para>
				
				<informalfigure float="0" id="fig_reaction_diagram">
					<mediaobject>
						<imageobject>
							<objectinfo>
								<title>model diagram</title>
							</objectinfo>
							<imagedata fileref="sakmann_2000.png"/>
						</imageobject>
					</mediaobject>
					<caption>Schematic diagram of the Sakmann et al. 2000 cardiac cell model.</caption>
				</informalfigure>
			</sect1>
		</article>
	</documentation>

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      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="V"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="xs"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>g_Ks</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>Cm</ci>
               <cn cellml:units="microS_per_microF">25.3</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ks</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_Ks</ci>
               <apply>
                  <power/>
                  <ci>xs</ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_Ks</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current_xs_gate">
      <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="xs" initial_value="0.0381477"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="xs_inf"/>
      <variable units="second" name="tau_xs"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>xs_inf</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <ci>V</ci>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">1.5</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="millivolt">16.7</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>tau_xs</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn cellml:units="second">0.001</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.0000719</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="millivolt">30</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.148</cn>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <cn cellml:units="millivolt">30</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.000131</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="millivolt">30</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.0687</cn>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <cn cellml:units="millivolt">30</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>xs</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>xs_inf</ci>
                  <ci>xs</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>tau_xs</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="fast_sodium_current">
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_Na"/>
      <variable units="microS" name="g_Na"/>
      <variable units="per_microF" name="nachanneldensity" initial_value="1075"/>
      <variable units="microS" name="gnachannel" initial_value="20"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="E_mh"/>
      <variable units="microF" public_interface="in" name="Cm"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="V"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="m"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="h"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="proton"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>g_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>nachanneldensity</ci>
                  <ci>Cm</ci>
                  <ci>gnachannel</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1.26</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <ci>proton</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1000</cn>
                                 <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2.5119e-6</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0.34</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1.58</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_Na</ci>
               <apply>
                  <power/>
                  <ci>m</ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
               </apply>
               <ci>h</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_mh</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="fast_sodium_current_m_gate">
      <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="m" initial_value="0.0026891"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="alpha_m"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="beta_m"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" name="delta_m" initial_value="1e-5"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" name="E0_m"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E0_m</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>V</ci>
               <cn cellml:units="millivolt">41</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_m</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_second">2000</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <apply>
                        <abs/>
                        <ci>E0_m</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>delta_m</ci>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">200</cn>
                        <ci>E0_m</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.1</cn>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>E0_m</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_m</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn cellml:units="per_second">8000</cn>
               <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.056</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>V</ci>
                        <cn cellml:units="millivolt">66</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>m</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_m</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>m</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_m</ci>
                  <ci>m</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="fast_sodium_current_h_gate">
      <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="h" initial_value="0.9873107"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="alpha_h"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="beta_h"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="proton" initial_value="3.98e-5"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" name="shifth"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>shifth</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt">32.7</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <ci>proton</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1000</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2.5119e-6</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <cn cellml:units="millivolt">32.18</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_h</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn cellml:units="per_second">20</cn>
               <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.125</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="millivolt">75</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>shifth</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_h</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn cellml:units="per_second">2000</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">320</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.1</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <cn cellml:units="millivolt">75</cn>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>shifth</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>h</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_h</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>h</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_h</ci>
                  <ci>h</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="persistent_sodium_current">
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_p_Na"/>
      <variable units="microS" name="g_pna" initial_value="0.0029"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="E_Na"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="microF" public_interface="in" name="Cm"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_p_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Cm</ci>
                     <cn cellml:units="per_microF">1000000</cn>
                     <ci>g_pna</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <ci>V</ci>
                        <cn cellml:units="millivolt">51.371</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <cn cellml:units="millivolt">53.9271</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <cn cellml:units="millivolt">7.4751</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1000</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="sodium_background_current">
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_b_Na"/>
      <variable units="microS" name="g_bna" initial_value="0.0006"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_i"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="E_Na"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_b_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_bna</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_Na</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_Ca_channel">
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_Ca_L_Ca_cyt"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_Ca_L_K_cyt"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_Ca_L_Na_cyt"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_Ca_L_Ca_ds"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_Ca_L_K_ds"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_Ca_L_Na_ds"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_Ca_L"/>
      <variable units="nanoA_per_millimolar" name="P_Ca_L" initial_value="0.11"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="P_CaK" initial_value="0.002"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="P_CaNa" initial_value="0.01"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_o"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="Ca_i"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="Ca_ds"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="K_o"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="K_i"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_o"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_i"/>
      <variable units="joule_per_kilomole_kelvin" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
      <variable units="coulomb_per_mole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
      <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="V"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="d"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="f"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="f2"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="f2ds"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" private_interface="out" name="Km_f2" initial_value="100000"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" private_interface="out" name="Km_f2ds" initial_value="0.001"/>
      <variable units="per_second" public_interface="out" private_interface="out" name="R_decay" initial_value="20"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="FrICa" initial_value="1"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca_cyt</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <ci>FrICa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">4</cn>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>f</ci>
                        <ci>f2</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>F</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>R</ci>
                        <ci>T</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">100</cn>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_K_cyt</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <ci>FrICa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>P_CaK</ci>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>f</ci>
                        <ci>f2</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>F</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>R</ci>
                        <ci>T</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>K_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>K_o</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_Na_cyt</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <ci>FrICa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>P_CaNa</ci>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>f</ci>
                        <ci>f2</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>F</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>R</ci>
                        <ci>T</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Na_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Na_o</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca_ds</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>FrICa</ci>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">4</cn>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>f</ci>
                        <ci>f2ds</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>F</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>R</ci>
                        <ci>T</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">100</cn>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_K_ds</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>FrICa</ci>
                        <ci>P_CaK</ci>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>f</ci>
                        <ci>f2ds</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>F</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>R</ci>
                        <ci>T</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>K_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>K_o</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L_Na_ds</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>FrICa</ci>
                        <ci>P_CaNa</ci>
                        <ci>P_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                        <ci>f</ci>
                        <ci>f2ds</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>F</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>R</ci>
                        <ci>T</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Na_i</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Na_o</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>F</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>R</ci>
                              <ci>T</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_L</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca_cyt</ci>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_K_cyt</ci>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_Na_cyt</ci>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca_ds</ci>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_K_ds</ci>
               <ci>i_Ca_L_Na_ds</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_Ca_channel_d_gate">
      <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="d" initial_value="1.44e-4"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="alpha_d"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="beta_d"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" name="E0_d"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="speed_d" initial_value="3"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E0_d</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="millivolt">24</cn>
               </apply>
               <cn cellml:units="millivolt">5</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_d</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_second">120</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <apply>
                        <abs/>
                        <ci>E0_d</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <cn cellml:units="millivolt">0.0001</cn>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">30</cn>
                        <ci>E0_d</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <ci>E0_d</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">7.2</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_d</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_second">120</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <apply>
                        <abs/>
                        <ci>E0_d</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <cn cellml:units="millivolt">0.0001</cn>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">12</cn>
                        <ci>E0_d</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <ci>E0_d</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2.5</cn>
                                 <cn cellml:units="millivolt">7.2</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>d</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>speed_d</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>alpha_d</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                        <ci>d</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>beta_d</ci>
                     <ci>d</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_Ca_channel_f_gate">
      <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="f" initial_value="0.9999993"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="alpha_f"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="beta_f"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="speed_f" initial_value="0.3"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" name="delta_f" initial_value="0.0001"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" name="E0_f"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E0_f</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>V</ci>
               <cn cellml:units="millivolt">34</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_f</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_second">25</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <apply>
                        <abs/>
                        <ci>E0_f</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>delta_f</ci>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">6.25</cn>
                        <ci>E0_f</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <ci>E0_f</ci>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">5.1</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_f</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn cellml:units="per_second">12</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <plus/>
                              <ci>V</ci>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">34</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="millivolt">5.1</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>f</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>speed_f</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>alpha_f</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                        <ci>f</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>beta_f</ci>
                     <ci>f</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_Ca_channel_f2_gate">
      <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="f2" initial_value="0.254433"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Km_f2"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_i"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>f2</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <cn cellml:units="per_second">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_second">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>Km_f2</ci>
                           <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>f2</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_Ca_channel_f2ds_gate">
      <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="f2ds" initial_value="0.9292189"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Km_f2ds"/>
      <variable units="per_second" public_interface="in" name="R_decay"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_ds"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>f2ds</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>R_decay</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>Km_f2ds</ci>
                           <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>f2ds</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="calcium_background_current">
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_b_Ca"/>
      <variable units="microS" name="g_bca" initial_value="0.00025"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="E_Ca"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_b_Ca</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_bca</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_Ca</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="transient_outward_current">
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_to"/>
      <variable units="microS" name="g_to" initial_value="0.005"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="g_tos" initial_value="0"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="E_K"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="V"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="time"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="s"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="r"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_to</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_to</ci>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>g_tos</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>s</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                        <ci>g_tos</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <ci>r</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_K</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="transient_outward_current_s_gate">
      <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="s" initial_value="0.7352365"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="alpha_s"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="beta_s"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_s</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn cellml:units="per_second">0.033</cn>
               <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <ci>V</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <cn cellml:units="millivolt">17</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_s</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn cellml:units="per_second">33</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.125</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn cellml:units="millivolt">10</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>s</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_s</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>s</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_s</ci>
                  <ci>s</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="transient_outward_current_r_gate">
      <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="r" initial_value="0"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>r</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn cellml:units="per_second">333</cn>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <plus/>
                                    <ci>V</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="millivolt">4</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                              <cn cellml:units="millivolt">5</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>r</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="sodium_potassium_pump">
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_NaK"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" name="i_NaK_max" initial_value="0.7"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="K_mK" initial_value="1"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="K_mNa" initial_value="40"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="K_o"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_i"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_NaK</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>i_NaK_max</ci>
                        <ci>K_o</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>K_mK</ci>
                        <ci>K_o</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>Na_i</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>K_mNa</ci>
                  <ci>Na_i</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="sodium_calcium_exchanger">
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_NaCa"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_NaCa_cyt"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="out" name="i_NaCa_ds"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" name="k_NaCa" initial_value="0.00012"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="n_NaCa" initial_value="3"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="d_NaCa" initial_value="0"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="gamma" initial_value="0.5"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="FRiNaCa" initial_value="0.001"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_i"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Na_o"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_i"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_ds"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_o"/>
      <variable units="joule_per_kilomole_kelvin" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
      <variable units="coulomb_per_mole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
      <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_NaCa_cyt</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>FRiNaCa</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>k_NaCa</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>gamma</ci>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <ci>F</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>R</ci>
                                 <ci>T</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <ci>Na_i</ci>
                           <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>gamma</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <ci>F</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>R</ci>
                                 <ci>T</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <ci>Na_o</ci>
                           <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="millimolar4">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>d_NaCa</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <power/>
                                 <ci>Na_o</ci>
                                 <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <power/>
                                 <ci>Na_i</ci>
                                 <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                        <cn cellml:units="millimolar">0.0069</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_NaCa_ds</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>FRiNaCa</ci>
                  <ci>k_NaCa</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>gamma</ci>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <ci>F</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>R</ci>
                                 <ci>T</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <ci>Na_i</ci>
                           <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>gamma</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <ci>F</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>R</ci>
                                 <ci>T</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <ci>Na_o</ci>
                           <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="millimolar4">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>d_NaCa</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <power/>
                                 <ci>Na_o</ci>
                                 <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>Ca_o</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <power/>
                                 <ci>Na_i</ci>
                                 <ci>n_NaCa</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
                        <cn cellml:units="millimolar">0.0069</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_NaCa</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>i_NaCa_cyt</ci>
               <ci>i_NaCa_ds</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="sarcoplasmic_reticulum_calcium_pump">
      <variable units="millimolar_per_second" public_interface="out" name="i_up"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="K_1"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="K_2"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="K_cyca" initial_value="0.0003"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="K_xcs" initial_value="0.4"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="K_srca" initial_value="0.5"/>
      <variable units="millimolar_per_second" name="alpha_up" initial_value="0.4"/>
      <variable units="millimolar_per_second" name="beta_up" initial_value="0.03"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_i"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_up"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>K_1</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>K_cyca</ci>
                  <ci>K_xcs</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>K_srca</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>K_2</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>Ca_i</ci>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>Ca_up</ci>
                  <ci>K_1</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>K_cyca</ci>
                  <ci>K_xcs</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>K_cyca</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_up</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     <ci>K_2</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>alpha_up</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>Ca_up</ci>
                        <ci>K_1</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>K_2</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>beta_up</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="calcium_translocation">
      <variable units="millimolar_per_second" public_interface="out" name="i_trans"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_rel"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_up"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_trans</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn cellml:units="per_second">50</cn>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>Ca_up</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_rel</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="calcium_release">
      <variable units="millimolar_per_second" public_interface="out" name="i_rel"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="VoltDep"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="RegBindSite"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="CaiReg"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="CadsReg"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="ActRate"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="InactRate"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="K_leak_rate" initial_value="0.05"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="K_m_rel" initial_value="250"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="K_m_Ca_cyt" initial_value="0.0005"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="K_m_Ca_ds" initial_value="0.01"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="PrecFrac"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="ActFrac" initial_value="0.0101647"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="ProdFrac" initial_value="0.9584464"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="SpeedRel"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="millivolt" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_i"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_ds"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="in" name="Ca_rel"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>VoltDep</ci>
            <apply>
               <exp/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.08</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                     <cn cellml:units="millivolt">40</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>CaiReg</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <ci>Ca_i</ci>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  <ci>K_m_Ca_cyt</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>CadsReg</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
                  <ci>K_m_Ca_ds</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>RegBindSite</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>CaiReg</ci>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>CaiReg</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>CadsReg</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>ActRate</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_second">0</cn>
                  <ci>VoltDep</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_second">500</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <power/>
                     <ci>RegBindSite</ci>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>InactRate</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <cn cellml:units="per_second">60</cn>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_second">500</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <power/>
                     <ci>RegBindSite</ci>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>SpeedRel</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">5</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn cellml:units="millivolt">50</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>PrecFrac</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <ci>ActFrac</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>ProdFrac</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>ActFrac</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>PrecFrac</ci>
                  <ci>SpeedRel</ci>
                  <ci>ActRate</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>ActFrac</ci>
                  <ci>SpeedRel</ci>
                  <ci>InactRate</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>ProdFrac</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>ActFrac</ci>
                  <ci>SpeedRel</ci>
                  <ci>InactRate</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>SpeedRel</ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="per_second">1</cn>
                  <ci>ProdFrac</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_rel</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <apply>
                        <power/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <ci>ActFrac</ci>
                           <apply>
                              <plus/>
                              <ci>ActFrac</ci>
                              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0.25</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>K_m_rel</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>K_leak_rate</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>Ca_rel</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="extracellular_sodium_concentration">
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Na_o" initial_value="140"/>
   </component>
   <component name="intracellular_sodium_concentration">
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Na_i" initial_value="5.6633707"/>
      <variable units="micrometre3" public_interface="in" name="V_i"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="coulomb_per_mole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_Na"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_b_Na"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_p_Na"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_Ca_L_Na_cyt"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_Ca_L_Na_ds"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_NaK"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_NaCa_cyt"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Na_i</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="mA_nA">1</cn>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn cellml:units="litre_micrometre3">1</cn>
                     <ci>V_i</ci>
                     <ci>F</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>i_Na</ci>
                  <ci>i_p_Na</ci>
                  <ci>i_b_Na</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                     <ci>i_NaK</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                     <ci>i_NaCa_cyt</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>i_Ca_L_Na_cyt</ci>
                  <ci>i_Ca_L_Na_ds</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="extracellular_calcium_concentration">
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Ca_o" initial_value="2"/>
   </component>
   <component name="extracellular_potassium_concentration">
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="K_o" initial_value="4"/>
   </component>
   <component name="intracellular_potassium_concentration">
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="K_i" initial_value="138.7963753"/>
      <variable units="micrometre3" public_interface="in" name="V_i"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_K1"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_Kr"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_Ks"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_Ca_L_K_cyt"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_Ca_L_K_ds"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_to"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_NaK"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="coulomb_per_mole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>K_i</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="mA_nA">1</cn>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn cellml:units="litre_micrometre3">1</cn>
                     <ci>V_i</ci>
                     <ci>F</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <ci>i_K1</ci>
                     <ci>i_Kr</ci>
                     <ci>i_Ks</ci>
                     <ci>i_Ca_L_K_cyt</ci>
                     <ci>i_Ca_L_K_ds</ci>
                     <ci>i_to</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                     <ci>i_NaK</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="intracellular_calcium_concentration">
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Ca_i" initial_value="5.44e-5"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Ca_ds" initial_value="0.0018991"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Ca_up" initial_value="0.7625025"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" public_interface="out" name="Ca_rel" initial_value="0.7368094"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="Ca_Calmod" initial_value="0.0018544"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="Ca_Trop" initial_value="0.0012852"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="Calmod" initial_value="0.02"/>
      <variable units="millimolar" name="Trop" initial_value="0.05"/>
      <variable units="per_millimolar_second" name="alpha_Calmod" initial_value="100000"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="beta_Calmod" initial_value="50"/>
      <variable units="per_millimolar_second" name="alpha_Trop" initial_value="100000"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="beta_Trop" initial_value="200"/>
      <variable units="micrometre" name="radius" initial_value="12"/>
      <variable units="micrometre" name="length" initial_value="74"/>
      <variable units="micrometre3" public_interface="out" name="V_i"/>
      <variable units="micrometre3" name="V_Cell"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="V_i_ratio"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="V_ds_ratio" initial_value="0.1"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="V_rel_ratio" initial_value="0.1"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="V_e_ratio" initial_value="0.4"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="V_up_ratio" initial_value="0.01"/>
      <variable units="per_second" name="Kdecay" initial_value="10"/>
      <variable units="millimolar_per_second" public_interface="in" name="i_up"/>
      <variable units="millimolar_per_second" public_interface="in" name="i_trans"/>
      <variable units="millimolar_per_second" public_interface="in" name="i_rel"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_NaCa_cyt"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_NaCa_ds"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_Ca_L_Ca_cyt"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_Ca_L_Ca_ds"/>
      <variable units="nanoA" public_interface="in" name="i_b_Ca"/>
      <variable units="coulomb_per_mole" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
      <variable units="second" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_Cell</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">3.141592654</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <power/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <ci>radius</ci>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1000</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>length</ci>
               </apply>
               <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1000</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_i_ratio</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>V_e_ratio</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>V_up_ratio</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>V_rel_ratio</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_i</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>V_Cell</ci>
               <ci>V_i_ratio</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_i</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <cn cellml:units="mA_nA">1</cn>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 <cn cellml:units="litre_micrometre3">1</cn>
                                 <ci>V_i</ci>
                                 <ci>F</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca_cyt</ci>
                                 <ci>i_b_Ca</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 <ci>i_NaCa_cyt</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
                           <ci>V_ds_ratio</ci>
                           <ci>Kdecay</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>i_rel</ci>
                              <ci>V_rel_ratio</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <ci>V_i_ratio</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <diff/>
                        <bvar>
                           <ci>time</ci>
                        </bvar>
                        <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <diff/>
                     <bvar>
                        <ci>time</ci>
                     </bvar>
                     <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <ci>i_up</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn cellml:units="mA_nA">1</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>i_Ca_L_Ca_ds</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                     <cn cellml:units="litre_micrometre3">1</cn>
                     <ci>V_ds_ratio</ci>
                     <ci>V_i</ci>
                     <ci>F</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>Ca_ds</ci>
                  <ci>Kdecay</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_up</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>V_i_ratio</ci>
                     <ci>V_up_ratio</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>i_up</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>i_trans</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_rel</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>V_up_ratio</ci>
                     <ci>V_rel_ratio</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>i_trans</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>i_rel</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_Calmod</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>Calmod</ci>
                     <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_Calmod</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_Trop</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>Trop</ci>
                     <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_Trop</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <group>
      <relationship_ref relationship="containment"/>
      <component_ref component="membrane">
         <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current">
            <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_m_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_h_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel">
            <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_d_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_f_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_f2_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_f2ds_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current">
            <component_ref component="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current_xr_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current">
            <component_ref component="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current_xs_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
         <component_ref component="persistent_sodium_current"/>
         <component_ref component="sodium_background_current"/>
         <component_ref component="calcium_background_current"/>
         <component_ref component="transient_outward_current">
            <component_ref component="transient_outward_current_s_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="transient_outward_current_r_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="sodium_potassium_pump"/>
         <component_ref component="sodium_calcium_exchanger"/>
         <component_ref component="sarcoplasmic_reticulum_calcium_pump"/>
         <component_ref component="calcium_translocation"/>
         <component_ref component="calcium_release"/>
         <component_ref component="extracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="extracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="extracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
         <component_ref component="reversal_potentials"/>
      </component_ref>
   </group>
   <group>
      <relationship_ref relationship="encapsulation"/>
      <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current">
         <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_m_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_h_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
      <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel">
         <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_d_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_f_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_f2_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_f2ds_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
      <component_ref component="transient_outward_current">
         <component_ref component="transient_outward_current_s_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="transient_outward_current_r_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
      <component_ref component="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current">
         <component_ref component="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current_xr_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
      <component_ref component="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current">
         <component_ref component="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current_xs_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
   </group>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="reversal_potentials"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="fast_sodium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="L_type_Ca_channel"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="persistent_sodium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="sodium_background_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="calcium_background_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="transient_outward_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="sodium_potassium_pump"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="sodium_calcium_exchanger"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="intracellular_sodium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="intracellular_potassium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="intracellular_calcium_concentration"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="sarcoplasmic_reticulum_calcium_pump"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="calcium_translocation"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="calcium_release"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="membrane" component_1="calcium_release"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="reversal_potentials" component_1="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="fast_sodium_current" component_1="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_Na" variable_1="i_Na"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="Cm" variable_1="Cm"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="L_type_Ca_channel" component_1="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_Ca_L_Ca_cyt" variable_1="i_Ca_L_Ca_cyt"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_Ca_L_Ca_ds" variable_1="i_Ca_L_Ca_ds"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_Ca_L_Na_cyt" variable_1="i_Ca_L_Na_cyt"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_Ca_L_Na_ds" variable_1="i_Ca_L_Na_ds"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_Ca_L_K_cyt" variable_1="i_Ca_L_K_cyt"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_Ca_L_K_ds" variable_1="i_Ca_L_K_ds"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current" component_1="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_Kr" variable_1="i_Kr"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="Cm" variable_1="Cm"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current" component_1="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_Ks" variable_1="i_Ks"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="Cm" variable_1="Cm"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="transient_outward_current" component_1="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_to" variable_1="i_to"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="time_independent_potassium_current" component_1="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_K1" variable_1="i_K1"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="persistent_sodium_current" component_1="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_p_Na" variable_1="i_p_Na"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="Cm" variable_1="Cm"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="sodium_background_current" component_1="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_b_Na" variable_1="i_b_Na"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="calcium_background_current" component_1="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_b_Ca" variable_1="i_b_Ca"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="sodium_potassium_pump" component_1="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_NaK" variable_1="i_NaK"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="sodium_calcium_exchanger" component_1="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_NaCa_cyt" variable_1="i_NaCa_cyt"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="i_NaCa_ds" variable_1="i_NaCa_ds"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="intracellular_sodium_concentration" component_1="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="intracellular_potassium_concentration" component_1="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="intracellular_calcium_concentration" component_1="membrane"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="sodium_background_current" component_1="reversal_potentials"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="E_Na" variable_1="E_Na"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="persistent_sodium_current" component_1="reversal_potentials"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="E_Na" variable_1="E_Na"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="time_independent_potassium_current" component_1="reversal_potentials"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="E_K" variable_1="E_K"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="rapid_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current" component_1="reversal_potentials"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="E_K" variable_1="E_K"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="slow_delayed_rectifier_potassium_current" component_1="reversal_potentials"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="E_Ks" variable_1="E_Ks"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="transient_outward_current" component_1="reversal_potentials"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="E_K" variable_1="E_K"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="calcium_background_current" component_1="reversal_potentials"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="E_Ca" variable_1="E_Ca"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="fast_sodium_current" component_1="reversal_potentials"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="E_mh" variable_1="E_mh"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="extracellular_potassium_concentration" component_1="reversal_potentials"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="K_o" variable_1="K_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="extracellular_sodium_concentration" component_1="reversal_potentials"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="Na_o" variable_1="Na_o"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
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    <rdf:value>This model was based on the paper "Distribution of a Persistent Sodium Current Across theVentricular Wall in Guinea Pigs" by Bernhard F.A.S. Sakmann, Anthony J. Spindler, Simon M. Bryant, Klaus W. Linz and Denis Noble. &#13;
Reference: Circulation Research 2000 Nov 10;87(10):910-4. &#13;
The following is the abstract from the paper:&#13;
"A tetrodotoxin-sensitive persistent sodium current, IpNa, was found in guinea pig ventricular myocytes bywhole-cell patch clamping. This current was characterized in cells derived from the basal left ventricular subendocardium,midmyocardium, and subepicardium. Midmyocardial cells show a statistically significant (P,0.05) smaller IpNathan subendocardial and subepicardial myocytes. There was no significant difference in IpNa current density betweensubepicardial and subendocardial cells. Computer modeling studies support a role of this current in the dispersion ofaction potential duration across the ventricular wall."</rdf:value>
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