Cardiovascular Circulation Windkessel

Model Status

This model describes the human cardiovascular dynamics using lumped-parameter modelling, based on the concept of hydraulic-electric analogue. The original model was implemented using C language. Due to the difference of description language and procedural language, some features such as the heart valve dynamics can not be realised effectively, and have to be simplified in the current CellML implementation.

The current CellML model implementation runs in OpenCell. The results have been validated against the original C implementation as well as those published data in literature.

Model Structure

The model comprises two main parts: the heart and the systemic loop, as illustrated in the figure below. The heart is modelled as a two-chambered pump with variable elastance and two heart valves to control the direction of blood flow. The systemic loop is described with a Windkessel model, simulating the resistance to blood flow and the elasticity of the vessel wall.

Schematic of the system configuration of the cardiovascular model

This model has been derived and used by a number of investigators, but in the context of this series of CellML models it is one of a family that can be obtained by reduction of a more complex model that is published separately.