Location: Demir, Clark, Giles, 1999 @ 8d0f065ca3c1 / demir_clark_giles_1999.cellml

Author:
Catherine Lloyd <c.lloyd@auckland.ac.nz>
Date:
2010-05-11 21:54:52+12:00
Desc:
Ditto the previous commit message - I just hadn't "replaced all".
Permanent Source URI:
https://models.cellml.org/workspace/demir_clark_giles_1999/rawfile/8d0f065ca3c1f2e0e53b841035d9a3a77dab66af/demir_clark_giles_1999.cellml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!--
This CellML file was generated on 27/02/2007 at 15:14:55 using:

COR (0.9.31.457)
Copyright 2002-2006 Oxford Cardiac Electrophysiology Group
http://COR.physiol.ox.ac.uk/ - COR@physiol.ox.ac.uk

CellML 1.0 was used to generate this cellular model
http://www.CellML.org/
-->
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<documentation xmlns="http://cellml.org/tmp-documentation">
<article>
  <articleinfo>
  <title>A Model Of Parasympathetic Modulation Of Pacemaker Rate, 1999</title>
  <author>
    <firstname>Penny</firstname>
          <surname>Noble</surname>
    <affiliation>
      <shortaffil>Oxford University</shortaffil>
    </affiliation>
  </author>
</articleinfo>
  <section id="sec_status">
    <title>Model Status</title>
    <para>
            This model has been validated by Penny Noble of Oxford University and is known to run in COR and OpenCell to reproduce the published results. The units have been checked and are balanced.
          </para>

  </section>
  <sect1 id="sec_structure">
<title>Model Structure</title>

<para>
ABSTRACT: We have extended our compartmental model [Am. J. Physiol. 266 (Cell Physiol. 35): C832-C852, 1994] of the single rabbit sinoatrial node (SAN) cell so that it can simulate cellular responses to bath applications of ACh and isoprenaline as well as the effects of neuronally released ACh. The model employs three different types of muscarinic receptors to explain the variety of responses observed in mammalian cardiac pacemaking cells subjected to vagal stimulation. The response of greatest interest is the ACh-sensitive change in cycle length that is not accompanied by a change in action potential duration or repolarization or hyperpolarization of the maximum diastolic potential. In this case, an ACh-sensitive K+ current is not involved. Membrane hyperpolarization occurs in response to much higher levels of vagal stimulation, and this response is also mimicked by the model. Here, an ACh-sensitive K+ current is involved. The well-known phase-resetting response of the SAN cell to single and periodically applied vagal bursts of impulses is also simulated in the presence and absence of the beta-agonist isoprenaline. Finally, the responses of the SAN cell to longer continuous trains of periodic vagal stimulation are simulated, and this can result in the complete cessation of pacemaking. Therefore, this model is 1) applicable over the full range of intensity and pattern of vagal input and 2) can offer biophysically based explanations for many of the phenomena associated with the autonomic control of cardiac pacemaking.
</para>

<para>
The original paper reference is cited below:
</para>

<para>
Parasympathetic modulation of sinoatrial node pacemaker activity in rabbit heart: a unifying model, Semahat S. Demir, John W. Clark and Wayne R. Giles, 1999, 
            <emphasis>American Journal of Physiology</emphasis>, 276, H2221-H2244.  <ulink url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&amp;db=PubMed&amp;list_uids=10362707&amp;dopt=Abstract">PubMed ID: 10362707</ulink>
</para>

<informalfigure float="0" id="fig_cell_diagram">
<mediaobject>
  <imageobject>
    <objectinfo>
      <title>cell diagram of the Demir et al SAN model showing ionic currents, pumps and exchangers within the sarcolemma</title>
    </objectinfo>
    <imagedata fileref="demir_1999.png"/>
  </imageobject>
</mediaobject>
<caption>A schematic diagram describing the current flows across the cell membrane that are captured in the Demir <emphasis>et al</emphasis> 1999 model of the electrophysiological activity in a SAN cell.</caption>
</informalfigure>

</sect1>
</article>
</documentation>


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                     <ci>d_L</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.095</cn>
                     <ci>d_L_infinity</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_Ca_L</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_Ca_channel_d_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0.002572773" name="d_L" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="d_L_infinity" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="alpha_d_L" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="beta_d_L" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="tau_d_L" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_d_L</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">28.39</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>V</ci>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">35</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <plus/>
                              <ci>V</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">35</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">2.5</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">84.9</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.208</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_d_L</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">11.43</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">5</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.4</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">5</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>tau_d_L</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>alpha_d_L</ci>
                  <ci>beta_d_L</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>d_L_infinity</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">14.1</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">6</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>d_L</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>d_L_infinity</ci>
                  <ci>d_L</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>tau_d_L</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="L_type_Ca_channel_f_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0.98651" name="f_L" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="alpha_f_L" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="beta_f_L" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="f_L_infinity" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="tau_f_L" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_f_L</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt_second">3.75</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">28</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">28</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">4</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_f_L</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">30</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">28</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">4</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>tau_f_L</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>alpha_f_L</ci>
                  <ci>beta_f_L</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>f_L_infinity</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">30</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">5</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>f_L</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>f_L_infinity</ci>
                  <ci>f_L</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>tau_f_L</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="T_type_Ca_channel">
      <variable name="i_Ca_T" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.02521" name="g_Ca_T" units="microS"/>
      <variable initial_value="45" name="E_Ca_T" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="d_T" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="f_T" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_T</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_Ca_T</ci>
               <ci>d_T</ci>
               <ci>f_T</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_Ca_T</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="T_type_Ca_channel_d_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0.02012114" name="d_T" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="alpha_d_T" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="beta_d_T" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="d_T_infinity" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="tau_d_T" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_d_T</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">1068</cn>
               <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>V</ci>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">26.3</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">30</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_d_T</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">1068</cn>
               <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>V</ci>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">26.3</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">30</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>tau_d_T</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>alpha_d_T</ci>
                  <ci>beta_d_T</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>d_T_infinity</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">26.3</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">6</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>d_T</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>d_T_infinity</ci>
                  <ci>d_T</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>tau_d_T</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="T_type_Ca_channel_f_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0.1945111" name="f_T" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="alpha_f_T" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="beta_f_T" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="f_T_infinity" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="tau_f_T" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_f_T</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">15.3</cn>
               <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>V</ci>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">61.7</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">83.3</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_f_T</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">15</cn>
               <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>V</ci>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">61.7</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">15.38</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>tau_f_T</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>alpha_f_T</ci>
                  <ci>beta_f_T</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>f_T_infinity</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">61.7</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">5.6</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>f_T</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>f_T_infinity</ci>
                  <ci>f_T</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>tau_f_T</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="delayed_rectifying_potassium_current">
      <variable name="i_K" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="g_K" units="microS"/>
      <variable name="F_cAMP_K" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="cAMP" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="E_K" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="K_b" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="P_a" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="P_i" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>F_cAMP_K</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.62</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2.6129</cn>
                           <ci>cAMP</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>cAMP</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" type="e-notation" cellml:units="millimolar">9<sep/>-3</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.025</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>g_K</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>F_cAMP_K</ci>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="microS">0.00693</cn>
               <apply>
                  <power/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>K_b</ci>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar">1</cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.59</cn>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_K</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_K</ci>
               <ci>P_a</ci>
               <ci>P_i</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_K</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="delayed_rectifying_potassium_current_P_a_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0.02302278" name="P_a" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="tau_P_a" units="second"/>
      <variable name="P_a_infinity" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>P_a_infinity</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">5.1</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">7.4</cn>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>tau_P_a</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">17</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.0398</cn>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">2.11</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.051</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>P_a</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>P_a_infinity</ci>
                  <ci>P_a</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>tau_P_a</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="delayed_rectifying_potassium_current_P_i_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0.3777728" name="P_i" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="alpha_P_i" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="beta_P_i" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_P_i</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">100</cn>
               <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.0183</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_P_i</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">656</cn>
               <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.00942</cn>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>P_i</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_P_i</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>P_i</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_P_i</ci>
                  <ci>P_i</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="linear_background_current">
      <variable name="i_B" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_B_Na" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_B_Ca" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_B_K" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.00016" name="g_B_Na" units="microS"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0000364" name="g_B_Ca" units="microS"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0000694" name="g_B_K" units="microS"/>
      <variable name="E_Na" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="E_Ca" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="E_K" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="F_ACh_bNa" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="ACh" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>F_ACh_bNa</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <ci>ACh</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <ci>ACh</ci>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" type="e-notation" cellml:units="millimolar">5<sep/>-1</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_B_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>F_ACh_bNa</ci>
               <ci>g_B_Na</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_Na</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_B_Ca</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_B_Ca</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_Ca</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_B_K</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_B_K</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_K</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_B</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>i_B_Na</ci>
               <ci>i_B_Ca</ci>
               <ci>i_B_K</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="hyperpolarisation_activated_current">
      <variable name="i_f" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_f_Na" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_f_K" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0067478" name="g_f_Na" units="microS"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0128821" name="g_f_K" units="microS"/>
      <variable name="time" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="cAMP" private_interface="out" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="y" private_interface="in" units="dimensionless"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_f_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_f_Na</ci>
               <apply>
                  <power/>
                  <ci>y</ci>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">75</cn>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_f_K</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_f_K</ci>
               <apply>
                  <power/>
                  <ci>y</ci>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">85</cn>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_f</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>i_f_Na</ci>
               <ci>i_f_K</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="hyperpolarisation_activated_current_y_gate">
      <variable initial_value="0.09227776" name="y" public_interface="out" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="y_infinity" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="V_half" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="cAMP" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="tau_y" units="second"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_half</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">20.5</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <ci>cAMP</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" type="e-notation" cellml:units="millimolar">3.4<sep/>-3</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" type="e-notation" cellml:units="millimolar">5<sep/>-4</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">78.56</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>y_infinity</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <ci>V_half</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">9</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>tau_y</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="second">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1.6483</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <plus/>
                              <ci>V</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">54.06</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">24.33</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">14.01055</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.7</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">60</cn>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">5.5</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>y</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>y_infinity</ci>
                  <ci>y</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>tau_y</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="sodium_potassium_pump">
      <variable name="i_NaK" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="5.46" name="K_m_Na" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.621" name="K_m_K" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.2192" name="i_NaK_max" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="F_cAMP_NaK" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="cAMP" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Na_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="K_c" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>F_cAMP_NaK</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1.6</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <exp/>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <ci>cAMP</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" type="e-notation" cellml:units="millimolar">3.75<sep/>-3</cn>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" type="e-notation" cellml:units="millimolar">1.5<sep/>-4</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.99</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_NaK</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                           <ci>F_cAMP_NaK</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>i_NaK_max</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <ci>Na_i</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>K_m_Na</ci>
                                 <ci>Na_i</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <ci>K_c</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>K_m_K</ci>
                                 <ci>K_c</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1.6</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1.5</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">60</cn>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">40</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar">0.00015</cn>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>F_cAMP_NaK</ci>
                        <ci>i_NaK_max</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <ci>Na_i</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>K_m_Na</ci>
                                 <ci>Na_i</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <ci>K_c</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>K_m_K</ci>
                                 <ci>K_c</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1.6</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1.5</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>V</ci>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">60</cn>
                              </apply>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">40</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="calcium_pump_current">
      <variable name="i_Ca_P" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.02869" name="i_Ca_P_max" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="Ca_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_Ca_P</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>i_Ca_P_max</ci>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar">0.0004</cn>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="sodium_calcium_pump">
      <variable name="i_NaCa" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.00001248" name="K_NaCa" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0001" name="d_NaCa" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.5" name="gamma" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="Na_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Na_c" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_c" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_NaCa</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>K_NaCa</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <ci>Na_i</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>Ca_c</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.03743</cn>
                              <ci>V</ci>
                              <ci>gamma</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <power/>
                           <ci>Na_c</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <exp/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.03743</cn>
                              <ci>V</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <minus/>
                                 <ci>gamma</ci>
                                 <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar_4">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>d_NaCa</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                           <apply>
                              <power/>
                              <ci>Na_c</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <ci>Ca_c</ci>
                           <apply>
                              <power/>
                              <ci>Na_i</ci>
                              <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="muscarinic_potassium_current">
      <variable name="i_K_ACh" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="I_K_ACh" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="ACh" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="g_K_ACh" units="microS"/>
      <variable initial_value="7.833e-3" name="g_K_ACh_base" units="microS"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="E_K" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="P_M2_KACh" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0" name="a" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="alpha_a" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="beta_a" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="f_Vagal" public_interface="in" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_K_ACh</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>a</ci>
               <ci>I_K_ACh</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>a</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>beta_a</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>a</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>alpha_a</ci>
                  <ci>a</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>beta_a</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">12.32</cn>
               <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar">0.0042</cn>
                     <ci>ACh</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>alpha_a</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">17</cn>
               <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.0133</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>V</ci>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">40</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>I_K_ACh</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>g_K_ACh</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>V</ci>
                  <ci>E_K</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>g_K_ACh</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>P_M2_KACh</ci>
               <ci>g_K_ACh_base</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>P_M2_KACh</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1.026</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <apply>
                              <exp/>
                              <apply>
                                 <divide/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <plus/>
                                    <ci>f_Vagal</ci>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">11.05</cn>
                                 </apply>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">7.5095</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.99</cn>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <and/>
                     <apply>
                        <lt/>
                        <ci>f_Vagal</ci>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">100</cn>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <gt/>
                        <ci>f_Vagal</ci>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">25</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.0006</cn>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="intracellular_concentrations_and_buffer_equations">
      <variable cmeta:id="intracellular_concentrations_and_buffer_equations_Na_i" initial_value="9.701621" name="Na_i" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable cmeta:id="intracellular_concentrations_and_buffer_equations_Ca_i" initial_value="3.787018e-4" name="Ca_i" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable cmeta:id="intracellular_concentrations_and_buffer_equations_K_i" initial_value="1.407347e2" name="K_i" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable cmeta:id="intracellular_concentrations_and_buffer_equations_Ca_Calmod" initial_value="0.1411678" name="Ca_Calmod" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable cmeta:id="intracellular_concentrations_and_buffer_equations_Ca_Trop" initial_value="0.07331396" name="Ca_Trop" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.7618549" name="Ca_Mg_Trop" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.2097049" name="Mg_Mg_Trop" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="phi_C" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="phi_TC" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="phi_TMgC" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="phi_TMgM" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="phi_B" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="2.5" name="Mg_i" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="F_C" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable name="F_TC" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable name="F_TMgC" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable name="Vol" public_interface="in" units="mm_cubed"/>
      <variable name="V_i" public_interface="out" units="mm_cubed"/>
      <variable name="i_NaK" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_NaCa" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_B_Na" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_f_Na" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Na" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_K" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_B_K" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_f_K" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_T" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_P" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_B_Ca" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_up" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_rel" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="F" public_interface="in" units="coulomb_per_mole"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_i</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.465</cn>
               <ci>Vol</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>phi_C</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millimolar_second">129000</cn>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">307</cn>
                  <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_Calmod</ci>
            </apply>
            <ci>phi_C</ci>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>phi_TC</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millimolar_second">50500</cn>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">252</cn>
                  <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_Trop</ci>
            </apply>
            <ci>phi_TC</ci>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>phi_TMgC</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millimolar_second">129000</cn>
                  <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>Ca_Mg_Trop</ci>
                        <ci>Mg_Mg_Trop</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">4.25</cn>
                  <ci>Ca_Mg_Trop</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_Mg_Trop</ci>
            </apply>
            <ci>phi_TMgC</ci>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>phi_TMgM</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millimolar_second">1290</cn>
                  <ci>Mg_i</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>Ca_Mg_Trop</ci>
                        <ci>Mg_Mg_Trop</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">429</cn>
                  <ci>Mg_Mg_Trop</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Mg_Mg_Trop</ci>
            </apply>
            <ci>phi_TMgM</ci>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>F_C</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar">0.09</cn>
               <ci>phi_C</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>F_TC</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar">0.031</cn>
               <ci>phi_TC</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>F_TMgC</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar">0.062</cn>
               <ci>phi_TMgC</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>phi_B</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>F_C</ci>
               <ci>F_TC</ci>
               <ci>F_TMgC</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Na_i</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                        <ci>i_NaK</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                        <ci>i_NaCa</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>i_B_Na</ci>
                     <ci>i_f_Na</ci>
                     <ci>i_Na</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>F</ci>
                  <ci>V_i</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>K_i</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                     <ci>i_NaK</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <ci>i_K</ci>
                     <ci>i_f_K</ci>
                     <ci>i_B_K</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>F</ci>
                  <ci>V_i</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_i</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                           <ci>i_NaCa</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>i_rel</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>i_Ca_L</ci>
                        <ci>i_Ca_T</ci>
                        <ci>i_Ca_P</ci>
                        <ci>i_B_Ca</ci>
                        <ci>i_up</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                     <ci>V_i</ci>
                     <ci>F</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <ci>phi_B</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="cleft_space_equations">
      <variable cmeta:id="cleft_space_equations_Na_c" initial_value="139.9988" name="Na_c" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable cmeta:id="cleft_space_equations_Ca_c" initial_value="2.00474" name="Ca_c" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable cmeta:id="cleft_space_equations_K_c" initial_value="5.389014" name="K_c" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="5.4" name="K_b" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="140" name="Na_b" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="2" name="Ca_b" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="3.497e-6" name="Vol" public_interface="out" units="mm_cubed"/>
      <variable name="V_c" units="mm_cubed"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.01" name="tau_p" units="second"/>
      <variable name="i_NaK" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_NaCa" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_B_Na" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_f_Na" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Na" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_K" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_B_K" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_f_K" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_L" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_T" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_Ca_P" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="i_B_Ca" public_interface="in" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="F" public_interface="in" units="coulomb_per_mole"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_c</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.136</cn>
               <ci>Vol</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Na_c</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>Na_b</ci>
                     <ci>Na_c</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>tau_p</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <ci>i_Na</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                        <ci>i_NaCa</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">3</cn>
                        <ci>i_NaK</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>i_B_Na</ci>
                     <ci>i_f_Na</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>F</ci>
                     <ci>V_c</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>K_c</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>K_b</ci>
                     <ci>K_c</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>tau_p</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>i_NaK</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>i_K</ci>
                     <ci>i_B_K</ci>
                     <ci>i_f_K</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>F</ci>
                     <ci>V_c</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_c</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>Ca_b</ci>
                     <ci>Ca_c</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>tau_p</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>i_NaCa</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>i_Ca_L</ci>
                     <ci>i_Ca_T</ci>
                     <ci>i_Ca_P</ci>
                     <ci>i_B_Ca</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                     <ci>F</ci>
                     <ci>V_c</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="SR_Ca_uptake_and_release">
      <variable cmeta:id="SR_Ca_uptake_and_release_i_rel" name="i_rel" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable cmeta:id="SR_Ca_uptake_and_release_i_up" name="i_up" public_interface="out" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="16.95311" name="Ca_up" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.08" name="alpha_up" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.072" name="beta_up" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable initial_value="16.85024" name="Ca_rel" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.5" name="alpha_rel" units="nanoA_per_millimolar"/>
      <variable cmeta:id="SR_Ca_uptake_and_release_i_tr" name="i_tr" units="nanoA"/>
      <variable name="K1" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="K2" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.00005" name="k_cyca" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.9" name="k_xcs" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="22" name="k_SRCa" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.004" name="k_rel" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="r_act" units="per_second"/>
      <variable name="r_inact" units="per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.9528726" name="Ca_Calse" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="phi_Calse" units="per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.1133251" name="F1" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.0007594214" name="F2" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.8859153" name="F3" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="V_i" public_interface="in" units="mm_cubed"/>
      <variable name="V_up" units="mm_cubed"/>
      <variable name="V_rel" units="mm_cubed"/>
      <variable name="Ca_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="F" public_interface="in" units="coulomb_per_mole"/>
      <variable name="V" public_interface="in" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_up</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.01166</cn>
               <ci>V_i</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_rel</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.001296</cn>
               <ci>V_i</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>K1</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>k_cyca</ci>
                  <ci>k_xcs</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>k_SRCa</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>K2</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>Ca_i</ci>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>Ca_up</ci>
                  <ci>K1</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>k_cyca</ci>
                  <ci>k_xcs</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>k_cyca</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>r_act</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">240</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millivolt">40</cn>
                        </apply>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millivolt">0.08</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">240</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <power/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                           <ci>k_rel</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">4</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>r_inact</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">40</cn>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">240</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <power/>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                           <ci>k_rel</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">4</cn>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>phi_Calse</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_millimolar_second">770</cn>
                  <ci>Ca_rel</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <ci>Ca_Calse</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">641</cn>
                  <ci>Ca_Calse</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_Calse</ci>
            </apply>
            <ci>phi_Calse</ci>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>F1</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">0.96</cn>
                  <ci>F3</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>r_act</ci>
                  <ci>F1</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>F2</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>r_act</ci>
                  <ci>F1</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>r_inact</ci>
                  <ci>F2</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>F3</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>r_inact</ci>
                  <ci>F2</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="per_second">0.96</cn>
                  <ci>F3</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_rel</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>alpha_rel</ci>
               <apply>
                  <power/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>F2</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>F2</ci>
                        <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.25</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
               </apply>
               <ci>Ca_rel</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_tr</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>Ca_up</ci>
                     <ci>Ca_rel</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                  <ci>F</ci>
                  <ci>V_up</ci>
               </apply>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="second">0.06418</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>i_up</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>alpha_up</ci>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>beta_up</ci>
                     <ci>Ca_up</ci>
                     <ci>K1</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <ci>K2</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_up</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>i_up</ci>
                  <ci>i_tr</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                  <ci>V_up</ci>
                  <ci>F</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>Ca_rel</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>i_tr</ci>
                     <ci>i_rel</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                     <ci>V_rel</ci>
                     <ci>F</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="millimolar">11.48</cn>
                  <ci>phi_Calse</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="reversal_potentials">
      <variable name="E_Na" public_interface="out" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="E_K" public_interface="out" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="E_Ca" public_interface="out" units="millivolt"/>
      <variable name="K_c" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Na_c" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="K_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Na_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_c" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="Ca_i" public_interface="in" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable name="R" public_interface="in" units="joule_per_kilomole_kelvin"/>
      <variable name="T" public_interface="in" units="kelvin"/>
      <variable name="F" public_interface="in" units="coulomb_per_mole"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E_Na</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>R</ci>
                     <ci>T</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>F</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <ln/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>Na_c</ci>
                     <ci>Na_i</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E_K</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>R</ci>
                     <ci>T</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>F</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <ln/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>K_c</ci>
                     <ci>K_i</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>E_Ca</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">0.5</cn>
                     <ci>R</ci>
                     <ci>T</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>F</ci>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <ln/>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>Ca_c</ci>
                     <ci>Ca_i</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="cAMP_balance">
      <variable initial_value="3e-3" name="cAMP" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="2e-3" name="cGMP" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0" name="Iso" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0" name="ACh" public_interface="out" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.14e-3" name="Km_Iso" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.14e-3" name="Km_ACh" units="millimolar"/>
      <variable initial_value="6" name="K_PDE" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable initial_value="8e-3" name="K_ADC" units="millimolar_per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="20" name="V_PDE" units="per_second"/>
      <variable initial_value="0.02" name="P_M2_ADC" units="dimensionless"/>
      <variable name="time" public_interface="in" units="second"/>
      <variable initial_value="200" name="f_Vagal" public_interface="out" units="per_second"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>cAMP</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>K_ADC</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <cn xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <apply>
                              <divide/>
                              <ci>Iso</ci>
                              <apply>
                                 <plus/>
                                 <ci>Iso</ci>
                                 <ci>Km_Iso</ci>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <apply>
                           <divide/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>P_M2_ADC</ci>
                              <ci>ACh</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <plus/>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <ci>P_M2_ADC</ci>
                                 <ci>ACh</ci>
                              </apply>
                              <ci>Km_ACh</ci>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>V_PDE</ci>
                        <ci>cGMP</ci>
                        <ci>cAMP</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci>cAMP</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <ci>K_PDE</ci>
                           <ci>cGMP</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <group>
      <relationship_ref relationship="containment"/>
      <component_ref component="membrane">
         <component_ref component="sodium_current">
            <component_ref component="sodium_current_m_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="sodium_current_h_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel">
            <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_d_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_f_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="T_type_Ca_channel">
            <component_ref component="T_type_Ca_channel_d_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="T_type_Ca_channel_f_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="delayed_rectifying_potassium_current">
            <component_ref component="delayed_rectifying_potassium_current_P_a_gate"/>
            <component_ref component="delayed_rectifying_potassium_current_P_i_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="linear_background_current"/>
         <component_ref component="hyperpolarisation_activated_current">
            <component_ref component="hyperpolarisation_activated_current_y_gate"/>
         </component_ref>
         <component_ref component="sodium_potassium_pump"/>
         <component_ref component="calcium_pump_current"/>
         <component_ref component="sodium_calcium_pump"/>
         <component_ref component="muscarinic_potassium_current"/>
         <component_ref component="intracellular_concentrations_and_buffer_equations"/>
         <component_ref component="cleft_space_equations"/>
         <component_ref component="SR_Ca_uptake_and_release"/>
         <component_ref component="reversal_potentials"/>
         <component_ref component="cAMP_balance"/>
      </component_ref>
   </group>
   <group>
      <relationship_ref relationship="encapsulation"/>
      <component_ref component="sodium_current">
         <component_ref component="sodium_current_m_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="sodium_current_h_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
      <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel">
         <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_d_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_f_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
      <component_ref component="T_type_Ca_channel">
         <component_ref component="T_type_Ca_channel_d_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="T_type_Ca_channel_f_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
      <component_ref component="delayed_rectifying_potassium_current">
         <component_ref component="delayed_rectifying_potassium_current_P_a_gate"/>
         <component_ref component="delayed_rectifying_potassium_current_P_i_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
      <component_ref component="hyperpolarisation_activated_current">
         <component_ref component="hyperpolarisation_activated_current_y_gate"/>
      </component_ref>
   </group>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="L_type_Ca_channel" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="T_type_Ca_channel" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="delayed_rectifying_potassium_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="linear_background_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="hyperpolarisation_activated_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_potassium_pump" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="calcium_pump_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="sodium_calcium_pump" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="muscarinic_potassium_current" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="intracellular_concentrations_and_buffer_equations" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="cleft_space_equations" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="SR_Ca_uptake_and_release" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="reversal_potentials" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="cAMP_balance" component_2="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="time" variable_2="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="sodium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Na" variable_2="i_Na"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="R" variable_2="R"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="T" variable_2="T"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="F" variable_2="F"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="L_type_Ca_channel"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_L" variable_2="i_Ca_L"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="T_type_Ca_channel"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_Ca_T" variable_2="i_Ca_T"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="delayed_rectifying_potassium_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_K" variable_2="i_K"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="linear_background_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="V" variable_2="V"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_B" variable_2="i_B"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_1="membrane" component_2="hyperpolarisation_activated_current"/>
      <map_variables variable_1="i_f" variable_2="i_f"/>
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    <rdf:value>Added more metadata.</rdf:value>
    <cmeta:modifier rdf:resource="rdf:#9fe02731-09df-4e93-ada0-32981171c291"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6713501e-5de1-47b7-b5d0-91f87b5a430f">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">2002-02-28</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6da77758-e06f-47be-9a78-ed6199f8dcd1">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">2007-12-19T13:48:43+13:00</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
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    <dc:creator xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" rdf:resource="rdf:#a1facdbc-b851-4a8e-aa0d-d8e2ae379e17"/>
    <rdf:value>Below is a CellML description of Demir et al's 1999 mathematical model of parasympathetic modulation of sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaker activity in a rabbit heart. Based on experimental data, this model is a development of their earlier model of the single rabbit SAN cell (1994). Modifications have been made enabling it to mimic the important effects of the second-messenger cAMP and to simulate the response of SAN cells to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and isoprenaline (Iso).</rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
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    <vCard:Given xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">John</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">Clark</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">W</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#9d35de97-b0e8-4b67-bd1c-cbce96ab70c3">
    <vCard:Given xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">Semahat</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">Demir</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">S</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#cbb64d35-321e-4a06-9083-a2ce5bee5a76">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://imc.org/vCard/3.0#internet"/>
    <rdf:value>c.lloyd@auckland.ac.nz</rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#a7d225a0-b87b-4275-a28f-e2e2393acfa3">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">2005-04-25</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#d2719631-8fd3-4cc7-8124-48eb39dc8215">
    <rdf:value>i_f is modulated via a direct effect of cAMP on the 
             voltage-dependence of its steady-state activation variable y.</rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#$6yM4i3">
    <ns7:endingValue xmlns:ns7="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/simulation/1.0#">2</ns7:endingValue>
    <ns7:nonstandard-pointDensity xmlns:ns7="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/simulation/1.0#">100000</ns7:nonstandard-pointDensity>
    <ns7:maximumStepSize xmlns:ns7="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/simulation/1.0#">0.1</ns7:maximumStepSize>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#5dd9a12d-084e-4b4d-946e-0d1603bf6586">
    <vCard:Given xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">Catherine</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">Lloyd</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">May</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#4ac262c5-fb67-4f03-8863-8430c0142c0c">
    <dcterms:modified xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" rdf:resource="rdf:#a7d225a0-b87b-4275-a28f-e2e2393acfa3"/>
    <rdf:value>Changed equivalent to eq in apply id line.</rdf:value>
    <cmeta:modifier rdf:resource="rdf:#9dd209e8-3623-4e12-af33-e9c9e72ef204"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#f52f0c0a-5613-4337-a4c5-1c9592ec92d7">
    <rdf:value>ACh has a direct stimulatory affect on the ACh-sensitive potassium 
             channel.  The G-protein-mediated, direct affect of ACh on i_K_ACh 
             occurs via the extrajunctional M2/K_ACh muscarinic receptor.  This 
             channel has a single gating variable a.</rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#74e107aa-e69e-4b03-8323-63a8dd374f64">
    <dc:subject xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" rdf:resource="rdf:#fdddd685-7dad-464c-960d-b9869185c19c"/>
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    <vCard:N xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" rdf:resource="rdf:#4b555643-8880-4858-ba44-d5306efb1f56"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="#T_type_Ca_channel">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#f530ff7d-c7ba-4b1b-83c3-c51de5c7a062"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#ca3985aa-b574-4adf-8b57-052b2b5d1681">
    <vCard:ORG xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" rdf:resource="rdf:#24d9a681-3baf-4508-9533-c2239be1c593"/>
    <vCard:EMAIL xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" rdf:resource="rdf:#cbb64d35-321e-4a06-9083-a2ce5bee5a76"/>
    <vCard:N xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" rdf:resource="rdf:#667e6f48-f54f-4120-aee1-945d7eab48d9"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#417ffd9b-808c-4862-a98c-d373d6b1cda6">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">2003-04-05</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#aa958ea1-adc6-474a-a037-df3c2ddbc52d">
    <vCard:FN xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">James Lawson</vCard:FN>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c54bd8a5-a410-4c49-82c9-76908b85ff94">
    <dc:creator xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" rdf:resource="rdf:#aa958ea1-adc6-474a-a037-df3c2ddbc52d"/>
    <rdf:value>This model has been validated by Penny Noble of Oxford University and is known to run in COR and PCEnv. A PCEnv session file is also associated with this version. Model curated by Penny Noble using Demir 1994 Oxsoft Heart model code and Demir 1999 paper.</rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="#L_type_Ca_channel">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#4c84c820-8495-42b7-97e6-e3570cc58a74"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#70cc5358-26a2-4176-a99b-07c1a84dc764">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">1999-06-01</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#8595a970-b19b-492e-8acb-840dedb4f9c5">
    <vCard:Given xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">Catherine</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">Lloyd</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">May</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#f530ff7d-c7ba-4b1b-83c3-c51de5c7a062">
    <rdf:value>The T-type calcium channel has two gates, an activation gate d_T and an inactivation gate f_T.</rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#b77ca23e-cadf-4f3c-892b-a1740c6a20b3">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/>
    <vCard:N xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" rdf:resource="rdf:#4b82cb56-55dc-4d6a-a414-4934078d22b1"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#61e6be0d-4bfd-490b-af36-69a701824ac0">
    <rdf:value>The effects of Iso on i_NaK may be species dependent as it has been observed that Iso directly stimulates Na+-K+-ATPase activity in rabbit ventricular myocytes (Desilets and Baumgarten, 1986), but indirectly stimulates i_NaK in guinea pig ventricular myocytes via a PKA phosphorylation step (Gao et al. 1992, 1994).  In the absence of any quantitative evidence, in this model Demir et al. have assumed that cAMP directly stimulates i_NaK in the rabbit SAN cell and that this cAMP dependency may be modelled by the equations below.</rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#fd9c4d2c-b624-4de1-9203-73e936aea096">
    <dc:title xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/">American Journal of Physiology</dc:title>
  </rdf:Description>
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    <vCard:N xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" rdf:resource="rdf:#13ed244b-610e-4717-b7d8-d5092bdb3c99"/>
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  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#336d44ff-22e5-433f-a34f-4450ec682f5c">
    <vCard:Given xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">Wayne</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">Giles</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">R</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#b8d25898-a93d-4213-9cd6-43f8b45d9588">
    <dcterms:modified xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" rdf:resource="rdf:#e8543daf-bc07-480a-ad68-2c1ae176c5e3"/>
    <rdf:value>Changed sign of i_rel in dCai-dt equation.  Changed the name of sodium-calcium pump to an exchanger.  Changed U_calculation from an equals sign to an equivalent sign.</rdf:value>
    <cmeta:modifier rdf:resource="rdf:#bc64dff4-7530-4d25-8a74-731bfa077326"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#3097fab8-5ca4-4890-a794-57665ef91cee">
    <dcterms:modified xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" rdf:resource="rdf:#417ffd9b-808c-4862-a98c-d373d6b1cda6"/>
    <rdf:value>Changed the model name so the model loads in the database easier.</rdf:value>
    <cmeta:modifier rdf:resource="rdf:#bf02be6e-6f3c-44c2-85cf-5ebbed9f38b6"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#ea462339-329a-4a75-b85e-fe8f216b5ac9">
    <dc:creator xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" rdf:resource="rdf:#445bd029-2aaa-4801-a87d-5870b1bdfc79"/>
    <dc:title xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/">Parasympathetic modulation of sinoatrial node pacemaker activity in rabbit heart: a unifying model</dc:title>
    <bqs:volume xmlns:bqs="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#">276</bqs:volume>
    <bqs:first_page xmlns:bqs="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#">H2221</bqs:first_page>
    <bqs:Journal xmlns:bqs="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" rdf:resource="rdf:#fd9c4d2c-b624-4de1-9203-73e936aea096"/>
    <dcterms:issued xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" rdf:resource="rdf:#70cc5358-26a2-4176-a99b-07c1a84dc764"/>
    <bqs:last_page xmlns:bqs="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#">H2244</bqs:last_page>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#bbb0a67d-98c6-48dc-a28b-c7bd992b62f4">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">2002-02-25</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="#demir_SAN_1999">
    <cmeta:bio_entity>Sinoatrial Node Cell</cmeta:bio_entity>
    <ns7:simulation xmlns:ns7="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/simulation/1.0#" rdf:resource="rdf:#$4yM4i3"/>
    <dc:title xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/">Demir et al's 1999 mathematical model of a rabbit sinoatrial node cell</dc:title>
    <cmeta:species>Rabbit</cmeta:species>
    <bqs:reference xmlns:bqs="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" rdf:resource="rdf:#1b92a7f0-389f-4f9e-8b62-36b5e7f37bf0"/>
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    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#ccea4e26-cdc2-49e2-b9ea-15245fefb912"/>
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  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#fdf68c0f-d228-40d3-8762-71e56453220c">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">2002-02-06T00:00:00+00:00</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#1b92a7f0-389f-4f9e-8b62-36b5e7f37bf0">
    <bqs:Pubmed_id xmlns:bqs="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#">10362707</bqs:Pubmed_id>
    <bqs:JournalArticle xmlns:bqs="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" rdf:resource="rdf:#ea462339-329a-4a75-b85e-fe8f216b5ac9"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#2668baf5-777a-4154-aed4-98ec9f3f8cf1">
    <vCard:Given xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">James</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">Lawson</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">Richard</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="#hyperpolarisation_activated_current">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#d2719631-8fd3-4cc7-8124-48eb39dc8215"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#e0ecc64f-e5e0-4928-b6e6-ba161efed972">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">2007-06-19T15:32:11+12:00</dcterms:W3CDTF>
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    <vCard:Given xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">Catherine</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">Lloyd</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">May</vCard:Other>
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  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#bc64dff4-7530-4d25-8a74-731bfa077326">
    <vCard:N xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" rdf:resource="rdf:#5dd9a12d-084e-4b4d-946e-0d1603bf6586"/>
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  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c424feac-20a9-42a4-b803-b3650242e85b">
    <vCard:Given xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">Penny</vCard:Given>
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    <vCard:Other xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#">J</vCard:Other>
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</model>