Guyton Model: Circulatory Dynamics
Catherine
Lloyd
Auckland Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland
Model Status
This CellML model has not been validated. The equations in this file may contain errors and the
output from the model may not conform to the results from the MODSIM program. Due to the differences
between procedural code (in this case C-code) and declarative languages (CellML), some aspects of the
original model were not able to be encapsulated by the CellML model (such as the damping of variables).
Work is underway to fix these omissions and validate the CellML model. We also anticipate that many of
these problems will be fixed when the CellML 1.0 models are combined in a CellML 1.1 format.
Model Structure
Arthur Guyton (1919-2003) was an American physiologist who became famous for his 1950s experiments in which he
studied the physiology of cardiac output and its relationship with the peripheral circulation. The results of
these experiments challenged the conventional wisdom that it was the heart itself that controlled cardiac output.
Instead Guyton demonstrated that it was the need of the body tissues for oxygen which was the real regulator of
cardiac output. The "Guyton Curves" describe the relationship between right atrial pressures and cardiac output,
and they form a foundation for understanding the physiology of circulation.
The Guyton model of fluid, electrolyte, and circulatory regulation is an extensive mathematical model of human
circulatory physiology, capable of simulating a variety of experimental conditions, and contains a number of
linked subsystems relating to circulation and its neuroendocrine control.
This is a CellML translation of the Guyton model of the regulation of the circulatory system. The complete
model consists of separate modules each of which characterise a separate physiological subsystems. The
Circulation Dynamics is the primary system, to which other modules/blocks are connected. The other modules
characterise the dynamics of the kidney, electrolytes and cell water, thirst and drinking, hormone regulation,
autonomic regulation, cardiovascular system etc, and these feedback on the central circulation model. The CellML
code in these modules is based on the C code from the programme C-MODSIM created by Dr Jean-Pierre Montani.
This particular CellML model describes the flow of blood around the circuit from arteries, to veins, to heart,
to lungs, and back to heart again. It also calculates the resistances and the effect of various factors on the
resistances. In other words, this section presents the basic hemodynamics of the circulatory system.
model diagram
A systems analysis diagram for the full Guyton model describing circulation regulation.
model diagram
A schematic diagram of the components and processes described in the current CellML model.
There are several publications referring to the Guyton model. One of these papers is cited below:
Circulation: Overall Regulation, A.C. Guyton, T.G. Coleman, and H.J. Granger, 1972,
Annual Review of Physiology
, 34, 13-44. PubMed ID: 4334846
Guyton
Circulatory Dynamics
Description of Guyton circulatory dynamics module
2008-00-00 00:00
keyword
physiology
organ systems
cardiovascular circulation
circulatory dynamics
Guyton
This section calculates the flow of blood around the circuit from arteries, to veins,
to heart, to lungs, and back to heart again. It also calculates the resistances and
the effect of various factors on the resistances. In other words, this section
presents the basic hemodynamics of the circulatory system.
Encapsulation grouping component containing all the components in the Circulatory Dynamics Model.
The inputs and outputs of the Circulatory Dynamics Model must be passed by this component.
CD75:
The blood volume change that must be distributed to the different segments of the
circulation since the last iteration (VBD) is calculated by subtracting the volumes
of the various vascular segments (VAS, VVS, VRA, VLA, and VPA) from the total blood
volume, that is, plasma volume (VP) plus red cell volume (VRC).
CD75:
The blood volume change that must be distributed to the different segments of the
circulation since the last iteration (VBD) is calculated by subtracting the volumes
of the various vascular segments (VAS, VVS, VRA, VLA, and VPA) from the total blood
volume, that is, plasma volume (VP) plus red cell volume (VRC).
$\mathrm{VBD}=\frac{\mathrm{VP}+\mathrm{VRC}-\mathrm{VVS1}-\mathrm{VAS1}-\mathrm{VLA1}-\mathrm{VPA1}-\mathrm{VRA1}}{2}$
Containment grouping component for "right_atrial_blood_volume", "right_atrial_pressure",
and "autonomic_stimulation_effect_on_right_atrial_pressure".
CD20:
The rate of change of blood volume in the right atrium (DRA) is equal to the rate
of blood flow into the right atrium from the veins (QVO) minus the rate of outflow
of blood from the right atrium through the right heart (QRO).
CD21:
A temporary value for the volume of blood in the right atrium is calculated by
integrating the rate of change of blood volume in the right atrium (DRA).
CD22:
The portion of any change in total blood volume (VBD) that is ascribable to the
right atrium is calculated by multiplying the total blood volume change (VBD)
since the last iteration times a constant.
CD23:
The instantaneous volume of blood in the right atrium (VRA) is equal to the
temporary value calculated in CD21 plus the volume of blood caused by a change
in blood volume as calculated in CD22.
CD20:
The rate of change of blood volume in the right atrium (DRA) is equal to the rate
of blood flow into the right atrium from the veins (QVO) minus the rate of outflow
of blood from the right atrium through the right heart (QRO).
CD21:
A temporary value for the volume of blood in the right atrium is calculated by
integrating the rate of change of blood volume in the right atrium (DRA).
CD22:
The portion of any change in total blood volume (VBD) that is ascribable to the
right atrium is calculated by multiplying the total blood volume change (VBD)
since the last iteration times a constant.
CD23:
The instantaneous volume of blood in the right atrium (VRA) is equal to the
temporary value calculated in CD21 plus the volume of blood caused by a change
in blood volume as calculated in CD22.
$\mathrm{DRA}=\mathrm{QVO}-\mathrm{QRO}\frac{d \mathrm{VRA1}}{d \mathrm{time}}=\mathrm{DRA}\mathrm{VRA}=\mathrm{VRA1}+\mathrm{VBD}\times 0.0574$
CD24:
The volume of excess blood in the right atrium (VRE) is equal to the
instantaneous volume of blood in the right atrium (VRA) minus a constant value
which represents the volume of blood in the right atrium when the atrium is
filled to a level that will cause no increase in atrial pressure and the
pressure is still zero.
CD25:
Temporary right atrial pressure (PRA) at normal level of autonomic stimulation (AU=1)
is equal to the excess volume of blood in the right atrium (VRE) divided by a constant
value which represents the capacitance of the right atrium.
CD24:
The volume of excess blood in the right atrium (VRE) is equal to the
instantaneous volume of blood in the right atrium (VRA) minus a constant value
which represents the volume of blood in the right atrium when the atrium is
filled to a level that will cause no increase in atrial pressure and the
pressure is still zero.
CD25:
Temporary right atrial pressure (PRA) at normal level of autonomic stimulation (AU=1)
is equal to the excess volume of blood in the right atrium (VRE) divided by a constant
value which represents the capacitance of the right atrium.
$\mathrm{VRE}=\mathrm{VRA}-0.1\mathrm{PRA}=\frac{\mathrm{VRE}}{0.005}$
CD25C, CD25D, CD25E, and CD25F:
Calculation of the shift of the temporary calculated right atrial pressure of PRA
to its actual value of PRA1 when the level of autonomic stimulation AU) changes to
some other value besides the normal value of 1.0. The value of HTAUML determines
the ratio of the slope of changing PRA1 to slope of changing PRA.
CD25C, CD25D, CD25E, and CD25F:
Calculation of the shift of the temporary calculated right atrial pressure of PRA
to its actual value of PRA1 when the level of autonomic stimulation AU) changes to
some other value besides the normal value of 1.0. The value of HTAUML determines
the ratio of the slope of changing PRA1 to slope of changing PRA.
$\mathrm{PRA1}=(\mathrm{PRA}+8)(\mathrm{HTAUML}(\mathrm{AU}-1)+1)-8$
Containment grouping component for "pressure_effect_on_right_ventricular_pumping",
"pumping_effectiveness_of_right_ventricle" and "right_ventricular_output".
CD68:
Calculation of a multiplier factor (PP2) from three factors that affect the
ability of the right heart to withstand increasing output loads: The effect
of the pulmonary arterial pressure itself (PPA), the effect of changes in heart
arterial oxygen saturation in the coronary blood flow (OSA), and the effect of
sympathetic stimulation (AUH).
CD69:
Function curve relating the multiplier factor from CD68 (PP2) to a multiplier
factor for pumping strength of the right heart musculature (RVM).
CD68:
Calculation of a multiplier factor (PP2) from three factors that affect the
ability of the right heart to withstand increasing output loads: The effect
of the pulmonary arterial pressure itself (PPA), the effect of changes in heart
arterial oxygen saturation in the coronary blood flow (OSA), and the effect of
sympathetic stimulation (AUH).
CD69:
Function curve relating the multiplier factor from CD68 (PP2) to a multiplier
factor for pumping strength of the right heart musculature (RVM).
$\mathrm{PP2}=\frac{\frac{\mathrm{PPA}}{\mathrm{AUH}}}{\mathrm{OSA}}\mathrm{RVM}=\begin{cases}1.06 & \text{if $\mathrm{PP2}\le 0$}\\ 1.06+\frac{(0.97-1.06)(\mathrm{PP2}-0)}{32-0} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PP2}> 0)\land (\mathrm{PP2}\le 32)$}\\ 0.97+\frac{(0.93-0.97)(\mathrm{PP2}-32)}{38.4-32} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PP2}> 32)\land (\mathrm{PP2}\le 38.4)$}\\ 0.93+\frac{(0.8-0.93)(\mathrm{PP2}-38.4)}{48-38.4} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PP2}> 38.4)\land (\mathrm{PP2}\le 48)$}\\ 0.8+\frac{(0.46-0.8)(\mathrm{PP2}-48)}{60.8-48} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PP2}> 48)\land (\mathrm{PP2}\le 60.8)$}\\ 0.46+\frac{(0-0.46)(\mathrm{PP2}-60.8)}{72-60.8} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PP2}> 60.8)\land (\mathrm{PP2}\le 72)$}\\ 0 & \text{otherwise}\end{cases}$
CD70 and CD71:
Calculation of the proportion of the pumping effectiveness of the right heart that is
caused by left heart contraction. This is determined by the normal proportion (QRF)
times the instantaneous output of the left heart (QLO) and divided by the normalized
output of the left heart (QLN) when all factors affecting left heart strength are normal.
CD72 and CD73:
Calculation of the proportion of the right heart pumping effectiveness that is caused
by right heart musculature contraction itself, calculated from multiple factors that
affect right heart pumping including the normal proportion of right heart pumping that
is caused by left heart pumping (QRF), the strength of the right heart (HSR) relative
to its normal strength, the loading effect of pulmonary arterial pressure on the
right heart (RVM), the effect of autonomic stimulation on right heart strength (AUH),
the effect of possible deterioration of the right heart from shock and other factors (HMD),
and the effect on right heart strength caused by hypertrophy of the right heart (HPR).
CD74:
Calculation of the pumping effectiveness of the right heart (HPEF) by adding the
proportion of the pumping effectiveness caused by left heart function as calculated
from CD71 plus the proportion caused by pumping by the right heart as calculated
from CD73.
CD70 and CD71:
Calculation of the proportion of the pumping effectiveness of the right heart that is
caused by left heart contraction. This is determined by the normal proportion (QRF)
times the instantaneous output of the left heart (QLO) and divided by the normalized
output of the left heart (QLN) when all factors affecting left heart strength are normal.
CD72 and CD73:
Calculation of the proportion of the right heart pumping effectiveness that is caused
by right heart musculature contraction itself, calculated from multiple factors that
affect right heart pumping including the normal proportion of right heart pumping that
is caused by left heart pumping (QRF), the strength of the right heart (HSR) relative
to its normal strength, the loading effect of pulmonary arterial pressure on the
right heart (RVM), the effect of autonomic stimulation on right heart strength (AUH),
the effect of possible deterioration of the right heart from shock and other factors (HMD),
and the effect on right heart strength caused by hypertrophy of the right heart (HPR).
CD74:
Calculation of the pumping effectiveness of the right heart (HPEF) by adding the
proportion of the pumping effectiveness caused by left heart function as calculated
from CD71 plus the proportion caused by pumping by the right heart as calculated
from CD73.
$\mathrm{HPEF}=1\mathrm{AUH}\mathrm{RVM}\mathrm{HSR}\mathrm{HMD}\mathrm{HPR}+\frac{\mathrm{QRF}\mathrm{QLO}}{\mathrm{QLN}}$
CD26:
Function curve that gives the output from the right heart (QRN) for any given
level of right atrial pressure (PRA1) when all conditions of the right heart
are normal.
CD27: Calculation of the actual output from the right heart (QRO) by multiplying
the normalized value for the output (QRN) times a value that represents the
instantaneous pumping effectiveness of the right heart (HPEF).
CD26:
Function curve that gives the output from the right heart (QRN) for any given
level of right atrial pressure (PRA1) when all conditions of the right heart
are normal.
CD27: Calculation of the actual output from the right heart (QRO) by multiplying
the normalized value for the output (QRN) times a value that represents the
instantaneous pumping effectiveness of the right heart (HPEF).
$\mathrm{QRN}=\begin{cases}0 & \text{if $\mathrm{PRA1}\le -8$}\\ 0+\frac{(0.75-0)(\mathrm{PRA1}--8)}{-6--8} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PRA1}> -8)\land (\mathrm{PRA1}\le -6)$}\\ 0.75+\frac{(2.6-0.75)(\mathrm{PRA1}--6)}{-2--6} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PRA1}> -6)\land (\mathrm{PRA1}\le -2)$}\\ 2.6+\frac{(9.8-2.6)(\mathrm{PRA1}--2)}{4--2} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PRA1}> -2)\land (\mathrm{PRA1}\le 4)$}\\ 9.8+\frac{(13.5-9.8)(\mathrm{PRA1}-4)}{12-4} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PRA1}> 4)\land (\mathrm{PRA1}\le 12)$}\\ 13.5 & \text{otherwise}\end{cases}\mathrm{QRO}=\mathrm{QRN}\mathrm{HPEF}$
Containment grouping component for "pulmonary_vasculature_blood_volume",
"pulmonary_vasculature_pressure", "pulmonary_arterial_resistance",
"pulmonary_venous_resistance", "total_pulmonary_vasculature_resistance",
"pressure_gradient_through_the_lungs" and
"rate_of_blood_flow_from_pulmonary_veins_to_left_atrium".
CD28:
Rate of change of blood volume in the pulmonary arterial tree (DPA) is equal to the
rate of blood flow into the pulmonary arterial tree (QRO) minus the rate of blood flow
from the pulmonary arterial tree to the pulmonary venous tree (QPO).
CD29:
A temporary value for the instantaneous volume of blood in the pulmonary arterial
tree is calculated by integrating the rate of change of blood volume in the pulmonary
arterial tree (DPA).
CD30:
The portion ascribable to the pulmonary arteries of any total blood volume change (VBD)
that has occurred since the last iteration is calculated by multiplying the total volume
change since the last iteration (VBD) times a constant proportionality factor.
CD31:
The instantaneous volume of blood in the pulmonary arteria tree (VPA) is equal to the
temporary value calculated from Block CD29 plus the additional blood resulting from a
blood volume change as calculated in CD30.
CD28:
Rate of change of blood volume in the pulmonary arterial tree (DPA) is equal to the
rate of blood flow into the pulmonary arterial tree (QRO) minus the rate of blood flow
from the pulmonary arterial tree to the pulmonary venous tree (QPO).
CD29:
A temporary value for the instantaneous volume of blood in the pulmonary arterial
tree is calculated by integrating the rate of change of blood volume in the pulmonary
arterial tree (DPA).
CD30:
The portion ascribable to the pulmonary arteries of any total blood volume change (VBD)
that has occurred since the last iteration is calculated by multiplying the total volume
change since the last iteration (VBD) times a constant proportionality factor.
CD31:
The instantaneous volume of blood in the pulmonary arteria tree (VPA) is equal to the
temporary value calculated from Block CD29 plus the additional blood resulting from a
blood volume change as calculated in CD30.
$\mathrm{DPA}=\mathrm{QRO}-\mathrm{QPO}\frac{d \mathrm{VPA1}}{d \mathrm{time}}=\mathrm{DPA}\mathrm{VPA}=\mathrm{VPA1}+\mathrm{VBD}\times 0.155$
CD32:
Excess volume of blood in the pulmonary arterial tree (VPE) is equal to the
instantaneous volume of blood in the pulmonary tree (VPA) minus a constant value
which represents the volume of blood in the pulmonary arterial tree when it is
filled but still at zero pressure.
CD33:
The pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA) is equal to the excess volume of blood in
the pulmonary arterial tree (VPE) divided by a constant which is equal to the
capacitance of the pulmonary arterial tree.
CD32:
Excess volume of blood in the pulmonary arterial tree (VPE) is equal to the
instantaneous volume of blood in the pulmonary tree (VPA) minus a constant value
which represents the volume of blood in the pulmonary arterial tree when it is
filled but still at zero pressure.
CD33:
The pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA) is equal to the excess volume of blood in
the pulmonary arterial tree (VPE) divided by a constant which is equal to the
capacitance of the pulmonary arterial tree.
$\mathrm{VPE}=\mathrm{VPA}-0.30625\mathrm{PPA}=\frac{\mathrm{VPE}}{0.0048}$
CD59, CD60, CD61, and CD62:
Calculation of the resistance through the pulmonary arterioles (RPA) caused by
changes in pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA). CD60 gives a limit value for one
of the intermediate calculations, and CD61 gives an exponential effect of pressure
on natriuresis.
CD59, CD60, CD61, and CD62:
Calculation of the resistance through the pulmonary arterioles (RPA) caused by
changes in pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA). CD60 gives a limit value for one
of the intermediate calculations, and CD61 gives an exponential effect of pressure
on natriuresis.
CD59, CD60, CD61, and CD62:
Calculation of the resistance through the pulmonary arterioles (RPA) caused by
changes in pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA). CD60 gives a limit value for one
of the intermediate calculations, and CD61 gives an exponential effect of pressure
on natriuresis.
CD59, CD60, CD61, and CD62:
Calculation of the resistance through the pulmonary arterioles (RPA) caused by
changes in pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA). CD60 gives a limit value for one
of the intermediate calculations, and CD61 gives an exponential effect of pressure
on natriuresis.
CD59, CD60, CD61, and CD62:
Calculation of the resistance through the pulmonary arterioles (RPA) caused by
changes in pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA). CD60 gives a limit value for one
of the intermediate calculations, and CD61 gives an exponential effect of pressure
on natriuresis.
$\mathrm{PP1T}=0.026\mathrm{PPA}\mathrm{PP1}=\begin{cases}0.00001 & \text{if $\mathrm{PP1T}< 0.00001$}\\ \mathrm{PP1T} & \text{otherwise}\end{cases}\mathrm{CPA}=\mathrm{PP1}^{0.5}\mathrm{RPA}=\frac{1}{\mathrm{CPA}}$
CD63 and CD64:
Calculation of the resistance of blood flow through the pulmonary veins (RPV) as
a function of the left atrial pressure (PLA). Basically an increase in left
atrial pressure distends the pulmonary veins and reduces the resistance.
CD63 and CD64:
Calculation of the resistance of blood flow through the pulmonary veins (RPV) as
a function of the left atrial pressure (PLA). Basically an increase in left
atrial pressure distends the pulmonary veins and reduces the resistance.
CD63 and CD64:
Calculation of the resistance of blood flow through the pulmonary veins (RPV) as
a function of the left atrial pressure (PLA). Basically an increase in left
atrial pressure distends the pulmonary veins and reduces the resistance.
$\mathrm{PL1}=\mathrm{PLA}+18\mathrm{RPV}=\frac{1}{\mathrm{PL1}\times 0.0357}$
CD65:
The total resistance in the pulmonary circuit (RPT) is equal to the sum of the
pulmonary arterial resistance (RPA) plus the pulmonary venous resistance (RPV).
CD65:
The total resistance in the pulmonary circuit (RPT) is equal to the sum of the
pulmonary arterial resistance (RPA) plus the pulmonary venous resistance (RPV).
$\mathrm{RPT}=\mathrm{RPV}+\mathrm{RPA}$
CD34:
The pressure gradient through the lungs from the pulmonary arteries to the
pulmonary veins (PGL) is equal to the pressure in the pulmonary arteries (PPA)
minus the pressure in the left atrium (PLA).
CD34:
The pressure gradient through the lungs from the pulmonary arteries to the
pulmonary veins (PGL) is equal to the pressure in the pulmonary arteries (PPA)
minus the pressure in the left atrium (PLA).
$\mathrm{PGL}=\mathrm{PPA}-\mathrm{PLA}$
CD35:
Rate of outflow of blood from the pulmonary arterial tree (QPO) is equal to
the pressure gradient through the lungs (PGL) divided by the resistance to
blood flow through the lungs (RPT).
CD35A:
Damping of QPO to allow rapid computation of long-term hemodynamics. When
the value U equals 1.0 there is no damping. Any larger value for U provides
proportionate damping.
CD35:
Rate of outflow of blood from the pulmonary arterial tree (QPO) is equal to
the pressure gradient through the lungs (PGL) divided by the resistance to
blood flow through the lungs (RPT).
CD35A:
Damping of QPO to allow rapid computation of long-term hemodynamics. When
the value U equals 1.0 there is no damping. Any larger value for U provides
proportionate damping.
$\mathrm{QPO}=\frac{\mathrm{PGL}}{\mathrm{RPT}}$
Containment grouping component for "left_atrial_blood_volume", "left_atrial_pressure"
and "autonomic_stimulation_effect_on_left_atrial_pressure".
CD36:
The rate of change of blood volume in the left atrium (DLA) is equal to the rate
of blood flow into the left atrium from the pulmonary circulation (QPO) minus the
rate of blood flow out of the left atrium through the left heart (QLO).
CD37:
Calculation of a temporary value for the instantaneous volume of blood in the
left atrium by integrating the rate of blood volume change in the left atrium (DLA).
CD38:
Calculation of the proportion of any blood volume change (VBD) that has occurred
since the last iteration that is distributed to the left atrium, calculated by
multiplying by a porprotionality constant.
CD39:
The instantaneous volume of blood in the left atrium (VLA) is equal to the
temporary value calculated in CD37 plus the proportion of any blood volume
change that is attributable to the left atrium as calculated in CD38.
CD36:
The rate of change of blood volume in the left atrium (DLA) is equal to the rate
of blood flow into the left atrium from the pulmonary circulation (QPO) minus the
rate of blood flow out of the left atrium through the left heart (QLO).
CD37:
Calculation of a temporary value for the instantaneous volume of blood in the
left atrium by integrating the rate of blood volume change in the left atrium (DLA).
CD38:
Calculation of the proportion of any blood volume change (VBD) that has occurred
since the last iteration that is distributed to the left atrium, calculated by
multiplying by a porprotionality constant.
CD39:
The instantaneous volume of blood in the left atrium (VLA) is equal to the
temporary value calculated in CD37 plus the proportion of any blood volume
change that is attributable to the left atrium as calculated in CD38.
$\mathrm{DLA}=\mathrm{QPO}-\mathrm{QLO}\frac{d \mathrm{VLA1}}{d \mathrm{time}}=\mathrm{DLA}\mathrm{VLA}=\mathrm{VLA1}+\mathrm{VBD}\times 0.128$
CD40:
The excess blood volume in the left atrium (VLE) is equal to the instantaneous
volume of blood in the left atrium (VLA) minus a constant value which is the
volume of blood in the left atrium when it is filled with the pressure at zero.
CD41:
The pressure in the left atrium (PLE) is equal to the instantaneous exces volume
in the left atrium (VLE) divided by a constant which is equal to the capacitance
of the left atrium.
CD40:
The excess blood volume in the left atrium (VLE) is equal to the instantaneous
volume of blood in the left atrium (VLA) minus a constant value which is the
volume of blood in the left atrium when it is filled with the pressure at zero.
CD41:
The pressure in the left atrium (PLE) is equal to the instantaneous exces volume
in the left atrium (VLE) divided by a constant which is equal to the capacitance
of the left atrium.
$\mathrm{VLE}=\mathrm{VLA}-0.38\mathrm{PLA}=\frac{\mathrm{VLE}}{0.01}$
CD41A, CD41B, CD41C, and CD41D:
These blocks serve the same functions for the left heart that Blocks CD25C, CD25D,
CD25E, and CD25F serve for the right ventricle. The value AU in Block CD41D is the
level of autonomic stimulation of the heart, and HTAUML is the multiplier constant
for calculating the effect of changes in AU on the shift of left atrial pressure
effect from PLA to PLA1.
CD41A, CD41B, CD41C, and CD41D:
These blocks serve the same functions for the left heart that Blocks CD25C, CD25D,
CD25E, and CD25F serve for the right ventricle. The value AU in Block CD41D is the
level of autonomic stimulation of the heart, and HTAUML is the multiplier constant
for calculating the effect of changes in AU on the shift of left atrial pressure
effect from PLA to PLA1.
$\mathrm{PLA1}=(\mathrm{PLA}+4)(\mathrm{HTAUML}(\mathrm{AU}-1)+1)-4$
Containment grouping component for "pumping_effectiveness_of_left_ventricle",
and "left_ventricular_output".
CD66:
A temporary multiplier function (PA2) for the effectiveness of left heart pumping
is calculated from three factors: Stimulation of the left heart by the autonomic
nervous system (AUH), effect on heart pumping caused by changes in arterial oxygen
saturation (OSA), effect on heart pumping caused by the loading effect of systemic
arterial pressure (PA).
CD67:
Function curve relating the pumping effectiveness of the left heart (LVM) to the
multiplier function calculated in CD66 (PA2).
CD66:
A temporary multiplier function (PA2) for the effectiveness of left heart pumping
is calculated from three factors: Stimulation of the left heart by the autonomic
nervous system (AUH), effect on heart pumping caused by changes in arterial oxygen
saturation (OSA), effect on heart pumping caused by the loading effect of systemic
arterial pressure (PA).
CD67:
Function curve relating the pumping effectiveness of the left heart (LVM) to the
multiplier function calculated in CD66 (PA2).
$\mathrm{PA2}=\frac{\mathrm{PA}}{\mathrm{AUH}\mathrm{OSA}}\mathrm{LVM}=\begin{cases}1.04 & \text{if $\mathrm{PA2}\le 0$}\\ 1.04+\frac{(1.025-1.04)(\mathrm{PA2}-0)}{60-0} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PA2}> 0)\land (\mathrm{PA2}\le 60)$}\\ 1.025+\frac{(0.97-1.025)(\mathrm{PA2}-60)}{125-60} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PA2}> 60)\land (\mathrm{PA2}\le 125)$}\\ 0.97+\frac{(0.88-0.97)(\mathrm{PA2}-125)}{160-125} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PA2}> 125)\land (\mathrm{PA2}\le 160)$}\\ 0.88+\frac{(0.59-0.88)(\mathrm{PA2}-160)}{200-160} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PA2}> 160)\land (\mathrm{PA2}\le 200)$}\\ 0.59+\frac{(0-0.59)(\mathrm{PA2}-200)}{240-200} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PA2}> 200)\land (\mathrm{PA2}\le 240)$}\\ 0 & \text{otherwise}\end{cases}$
CD42:
Function curve that gives the normalized rate of output of the left ventricle (QLN)
when the left ventricle is operating at a normal level of pumping effectiveness for
any given left atrial pressure (PLA).
CD43:
The actual rate of output from the left ventricle (QLO) when the normalized rate (QLN)
is multiplied by various factors that alter the pumping effectiveness of the heart:
A multiplier that reduces the effectiveness because of pressure load on the heart (LVM),
a factor that changes the effectiveness of the heart because of abnormal left heart
strength (HSL), a factor that increases the effectiveness of the heart because of
hypertrophy (HPL), a factor that decreases the strength of the heart because of
deterioration of the heart in low blood flow states (HMD), and a factor that alters
the strength of the heart by increases or decreases in autonomic stimulation (AUH).
CD42:
Function curve that gives the normalized rate of output of the left ventricle (QLN)
when the left ventricle is operating at a normal level of pumping effectiveness for
any given left atrial pressure (PLA).
CD43:
The actual rate of output from the left ventricle (QLO) when the normalized rate (QLN)
is multiplied by various factors that alter the pumping effectiveness of the heart:
A multiplier that reduces the effectiveness because of pressure load on the heart (LVM),
a factor that changes the effectiveness of the heart because of abnormal left heart
strength (HSL), a factor that increases the effectiveness of the heart because of
hypertrophy (HPL), a factor that decreases the strength of the heart because of
deterioration of the heart in low blood flow states (HMD), and a factor that alters
the strength of the heart by increases or decreases in autonomic stimulation (AUH).
CD43:
The actual rate of output from the left ventricle (QLO) when the normalized rate (QLN)
is multiplied by various factors that alter the pumping effectiveness of the heart:
A multiplier that reduces the effectiveness because of pressure load on the heart (LVM),
a factor that changes the effectiveness of the heart because of abnormal left heart
strength (HSL), a factor that increases the effectiveness of the heart because of
hypertrophy (HPL), a factor that decreases the strength of the heart because of
deterioration of the heart in low blood flow states (HMD), and a factor that alters
the strength of the heart by increases or decreases in autonomic stimulation (AUH).
CD43:
The actual rate of output from the left ventricle (QLO) when the normalized rate (QLN)
is multiplied by various factors that alter the pumping effectiveness of the heart:
A multiplier that reduces the effectiveness because of pressure load on the heart (LVM),
a factor that changes the effectiveness of the heart because of abnormal left heart
strength (HSL), a factor that increases the effectiveness of the heart because of
hypertrophy (HPL), a factor that decreases the strength of the heart because of
deterioration of the heart in low blood flow states (HMD), and a factor that alters
the strength of the heart by increases or decreases in autonomic stimulation (AUH).
$\mathrm{QLN}=\begin{cases}0.01 & \text{if $\mathrm{PLA1}\le -2$}\\ 0.01+\frac{(3.6-0.01)(\mathrm{PLA1}--2)}{1--2} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PLA1}> -2)\land (\mathrm{PLA1}\le 1)$}\\ 3.6+\frac{(9.4-3.6)(\mathrm{PLA1}-1)}{5-1} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PLA1}> 1)\land (\mathrm{PLA1}\le 5)$}\\ 9.4+\frac{(11.6-9.4)(\mathrm{PLA1}-5)}{8-5} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PLA1}> 5)\land (\mathrm{PLA1}\le 8)$}\\ 11.6+\frac{(13.5-11.6)(\mathrm{PLA1}-8)}{12-8} & \text{if $(\mathrm{PLA1}> 8)\land (\mathrm{PLA1}\le 12)$}\\ 13.5 & \text{otherwise}\end{cases}\mathrm{QLOT}=\mathrm{LVM}\mathrm{QLN}\mathrm{AUH}\mathrm{HSL}\mathrm{HMD}\mathrm{HPL}\mathrm{QLO1}=\frac{\mathrm{PLA}-\mathrm{PA}}{3}\mathrm{QLO}=\begin{cases}\mathrm{QLOT}+\mathrm{QLO1} & \text{if $\mathrm{QLO1}> 0$}\\ \mathrm{QLOT} & \text{otherwise}\end{cases}$
Containment grouping component for "venous_blood_volume",
"angiotensin_induced_venous_constriction", "venous_excess_volume",
"venous_average_pressure", "venous_outflow_pressure_into_heart",
"resistance_from_veins_to_right_atrium", "rate_of_blood_flow_from_veins_to_right_atrium",
"venous_resistance" and "NM_NR_venous_resistance".
CD11:
The rate of change of blood volume in the systemic veins (DVS) is equal to the
rate of blood flow into the veins from the arterial tree (QAO) minus the rate
of blood flow out of the veins (QVO).
CD12:
A temporary value is calculated for the instantaneous volume of blood in the
veins by integrating the rate of change of the volume in the veins (DVS).
CD13:
The portion of any change in blood volume that has occurred since the last iteration
that is ascribable to volume change in the veins is calculated by multiplying the
total volume change (VBD) times a constant.
CD14:
The instantaneous volume of blood in the veins (VVS) is the sum of the temporary
calculation of instantaneous venous volume from CD12 plus the additional venous
volume change caused by change in total blood volume as calculated in CD13.
CD11:
The rate of change of blood volume in the systemic veins (DVS) is equal to the
rate of blood flow into the veins from the arterial tree (QAO) minus the rate
of blood flow out of the veins (QVO).
CD12:
A temporary value is calculated for the instantaneous volume of blood in the
veins by integrating the rate of change of the volume in the veins (DVS).
CD13:
The portion of any change in blood volume that has occurred since the last iteration
that is ascribable to volume change in the veins is calculated by multiplying the
total volume change (VBD) times a constant.
CD14:
The instantaneous volume of blood in the veins (VVS) is the sum of the temporary
calculation of instantaneous venous volume from CD12 plus the additional venous
volume change caused by change in total blood volume as calculated in CD13.
$\mathrm{DVS}=\mathrm{QAO}-\mathrm{QVO}\frac{d \mathrm{VVS1}}{d \mathrm{time}}=\mathrm{DVS}\mathrm{VVS}=\mathrm{VVS1}+\mathrm{VBD}\times 0.3986$
CD76 and CD77:
Calculation of the decrease in excess venous volume caused by angiotensin
constriction based on two factors: A multiplier factor caused by changes in
concentration of angiotensin in the circulating blood (ANU) and a
sensitivity adjustment (ANY).
CD76 and CD77:
Calculation of the decrease in excess venous volume caused by angiotensin
constriction based on two factors: A multiplier factor caused by changes in
concentration of angiotensin in the circulating blood (ANU) and a
sensitivity adjustment (ANY).
$\mathrm{VVA}=(\mathrm{ANU}-1)\mathrm{ANY}$
CD15:
The excess volume in the veins (VVE) is calculated by subtracting the maximum
volume of blood at zero venous pressure from the actual volume of blood in the
systemic venous system (VVS). The maximum volume of blood in the venous system
at zero pressure is equal to the sum of several variable factors: a basic volume
when all other factors are normal (VVR), changes caused by atrial volume
receptor feedback (ATRVFB), changes caused by stress relaxation (VV6 and VV7),
and a change in basic volume of the venous system caused by constriction of the
venous system in response to circulating angiotensin from block CD77.
CD15:
The excess volume in the veins (VVE) is calculated by subtracting the maximum
volume of blood at zero venous pressure from the actual volume of blood in the
systemic venous system (VVS). The maximum volume of blood in the venous system
at zero pressure is equal to the sum of several variable factors: a basic volume
when all other factors are normal (VVR), changes caused by atrial volume
receptor feedback (ATRVFB), changes caused by stress relaxation (VV6 and VV7),
and a change in basic volume of the venous system caused by constriction of the
venous system in response to circulating angiotensin from block CD77.
$\mathrm{VVE1}=\mathrm{VVS}-\mathrm{VVR}-\mathrm{VVA}-\mathrm{VV7}-\mathrm{VV6}-\mathrm{ATRVFB}\mathrm{VVE}=\begin{cases}0.0001 & \text{if $\mathrm{VVE1}< 0.0001$}\\ \mathrm{VVE1} & \text{otherwise}\end{cases}$
CD16, CD16A, and CD16B:
The average pressure in the venous system (PVS) is equal to the excess volume of
blood in the veins (VVE) divided by the capacitance of the venous system (CV).
The mathematics in these blocks are arranged so that when CV in block CD16A is
changed, the blood volume in the venous system does not change at the normal venous
pressure level of PVS (+ 3.7 mm Hg).
CD16D:
This block prevents the average venous pressure (PVS) from falling below .001 mm Hg.
CD16, CD16A, and CD16B:
The average pressure in the venous system (PVS) is equal to the excess volume of
blood in the veins (VVE) divided by the capacitance of the venous system (CV).
The mathematics in these blocks are arranged so that when CV in block CD16A is
changed, the blood volume in the venous system does not change at the normal venous
pressure level of PVS (+ 3.7 mm Hg).
CD16D:
This block prevents the average venous pressure (PVS) from falling below .001 mm Hg.
$\mathrm{PVS1}=3.7+\frac{\mathrm{VVE}-0.74}{\mathrm{CV}}\mathrm{PVS}=\begin{cases}0.0001 & \text{if $\mathrm{PVS1}< 0.0001$}\\ \mathrm{PVS1} & \text{otherwise}\end{cases}$
CD25A and CD25B:
Calculation of the outflow pressure from the systemic veins into the chest (PR1)
which is used for calculating the blood flow through the venous system in CD17.
This corrects for the collapse of veins that might occur at entry to the chest
when the right atrial pressure is negative, thus maintaining the output pressure
from the venous system above a minimum pressure level corresponding to the pressure
at which the veins collapse (PRILL).
CD25A and CD25B:
Calculation of the outflow pressure from the systemic veins into the chest (PR1)
which is used for calculating the blood flow through the venous system in CD17.
This corrects for the collapse of veins that might occur at entry to the chest
when the right atrial pressure is negative, thus maintaining the output pressure
from the venous system above a minimum pressure level corresponding to the pressure
at which the veins collapse (PRILL).
$\mathrm{PR1}=\begin{cases}\mathrm{PR1LL} & \text{if $\mathrm{PRA}< \mathrm{PR1LL}$}\\ \mathrm{PRA} & \text{otherwise}\end{cases}$
CD18, CD18A, and CD18B:
These blocks calculate the resistance from the large veins to the right atrium (RVS).
Block CD18 takes into consideration the effect of the viscosity of the blood (VIM) when
the normal value for the viscosity is considered to be 1.0. Block CD18A considers that
the resistance (RVS) decreases in proportion to the square root of the level of large
vein pressure (PVS). The numerical values in Blocks CD18 and CD18B are proportionality
constants. This group of blocks is especially concerned with the reduction of venous
resistance when pressure increases the diameter of the veins.
CD18, CD18A, and CD18B:
These blocks calculate the resistance from the large veins to the right atrium (RVS).
Block CD18 takes into consideration the effect of the viscosity of the blood (VIM) when
the normal value for the viscosity is considered to be 1.0. Block CD18A considers that
the resistance (RVS) decreases in proportion to the square root of the level of large
vein pressure (PVS). The numerical values in Blocks CD18 and CD18B are proportionality
constants. This group of blocks is especially concerned with the reduction of venous
resistance when pressure increases the diameter of the veins.
$\mathrm{RVG}=\frac{0.74}{\left(\frac{\mathrm{PVS}}{\mathrm{VIM}\times 3.7}\right)^{0.5}}$
CD17:
The temporary pressure gradient (PGV) from the midpoint of the veins to the exit
of the veins into the chest equals the venous pressure (PVS) minus the pressure
at the exit point (PR1).
CD19:
The rate of blood flow out of the veins into the right atrium (QVO) is equal to
the pressure gradient through the venous system (PGV) divided by the resistance
to blood flow through the venous system (RVS).
CD19A:
This block provides damping of the value QVO when running on the computer.
A damping value of X of 1.0 is no damping. Any higher value causes damping.
The value should be equal to 1.0 when studying rapid changes in circulatory
dynamics.
CD17:
The temporary pressure gradient (PGV) from the midpoint of the veins to the exit
of the veins into the chest equals the venous pressure (PVS) minus the pressure
at the exit point (PR1).
CD19:
The rate of blood flow out of the veins into the right atrium (QVO) is equal to
the pressure gradient through the venous system (PGV) divided by the resistance
to blood flow through the venous system (RVS).
CD19A:
This block provides damping of the value QVO when running on the computer.
A damping value of X of 1.0 is no damping. Any higher value causes damping.
The value should be equal to 1.0 when studying rapid changes in circulatory
dynamics.
$\mathrm{PGV}=\mathrm{PVS}-\mathrm{PR1}\mathrm{QVO}=\frac{\mathrm{PGV}}{\mathrm{RVG}}$
CD50, CD51, CD52, CD53, CD54, and CD55:
A curve-shaping series to calculate a resistance multiplier factor (RV1) from the
effect of vascular stretch in the venous system, based on two factors: the input
pressure to the venous system from the capillaries (PC) and a basal systemic venous
multiplier (RVSM). The damping factor in CD54 slows the response and prevents
oscillation of the system.
NB - The damping in CD54 has not been coded!!!!
CD56:
Calculation of the venous resistance (RVS) after modification of the basic venous
resistance multiplier factor (RV1) by various other multiplier factors: a multiplier
factor for the effect of angiotensin (ANUVN), a multiplier factor for the effect of
the autonomic nervous system (AVE), and a multiplier factor for the effect of blood
viscosity on venous resistance (VIM).
CD50, CD51, CD52, CD53, CD54, and CD55:
A curve-shaping series to calculate a resistance multiplier factor (RV1) from the
effect of vascular stretch in the venous system, based on two factors: the input
pressure to the venous system from the capillaries (PC) and a basal systemic venous
multiplier (RVSM). The damping factor in CD54 slows the response and prevents
oscillation of the system.
NB - The damping in CD54 has not been coded!!!!
CD50, CD51, CD52, CD53, CD54, and CD55:
A curve-shaping series to calculate a resistance multiplier factor (RV1) from the
effect of vascular stretch in the venous system, based on two factors: the input
pressure to the venous system from the capillaries (PC) and a basal systemic venous
multiplier (RVSM). The damping factor in CD54 slows the response and prevents
oscillation of the system.
NB - The damping in CD54 has not been coded!!!!
CD56:
Calculation of the venous resistance (RVS) after modification of the basic venous
resistance multiplier factor (RV1) by various other multiplier factors: a multiplier
factor for the effect of angiotensin (ANUVN), a multiplier factor for the effect of
the autonomic nervous system (AVE), and a multiplier factor for the effect of blood
viscosity on venous resistance (VIM).
$\mathrm{CN3}=(\mathrm{PC}\mathrm{CN7}+17)\mathrm{CN2}\mathrm{RV1}=\frac{\mathrm{RVSM}}{\mathrm{CN3}}\mathrm{RVS}=\mathrm{AVE}\mathrm{RV1}\mathrm{VIM}\mathrm{ANUVN}$
CD57:
Calculation of that proportion of the renal venous resistance that is ascribable
to blood flow through the systemic circulation besides the muscles and the kidneys,
by multiplying the actual venous resistance (RVS) times a proportionality factor.
CD57:
Calculation of that proportion of the renal venous resistance that is ascribable
to blood flow through the systemic circulation besides the muscles and the kidneys,
by multiplying the actual venous resistance (RVS) times a proportionality factor.
$\mathrm{NNRVR}=\mathrm{RVS}\times 1.79$
Containment grouping component for "arterial_blood_volume",
"arterial_pressure_and_pressure_gradient", "pressure_effect_on_arterial_distention",
"NR_systemic_arterial_resistance_multiplier" and "NM_NR_arterial_resistance".
CD1:
The rate of change of blood volume in the aorta (DAS) is equal to the rate of
inflow to the aorta from the heart (QLO) minus the rate of outflow from the
aorta through the systemic circulation (QAO) plus any flow that occurs passively
through the left ventricle (QLO1) because of a left atrial pressure that is
greater than aortic pressure, as occurs in the last stages of left ventricular
failure.
CD2:
Integration of the rate of change of volume in the aorta (DAS) gives an output
which is a temporary value for the volume of blood in the systemic arteries at
any given instant.
CD3:
This block calculates the portion of any change in blood volume that has occurred
since the last iteration (VBD) that is partitioned into the arteries. The remainder
is partitioned into other sections of the circulation.
CD4:
The volume of blood in the arterial tree at any given instant (VAS) is equal to the
temporary calculation in volume of blood as described in CD2 plus the portion of a
blood volume change as calculated in CD3.
CD1:
The rate of change of blood volume in the aorta (DAS) is equal to the rate of
inflow to the aorta from the heart (QLO) minus the rate of outflow from the
aorta through the systemic circulation (QAO) plus any flow that occurs passively
through the left ventricle (QLO1) because of a left atrial pressure that is
greater than aortic pressure, as occurs in the last stages of left ventricular
failure.
CD2:
Integration of the rate of change of volume in the aorta (DAS) gives an output
which is a temporary value for the volume of blood in the systemic arteries at
any given instant.
CD3:
This block calculates the portion of any change in blood volume that has occurred
since the last iteration (VBD) that is partitioned into the arteries. The remainder
is partitioned into other sections of the circulation.
CD4:
The volume of blood in the arterial tree at any given instant (VAS) is equal to the
temporary calculation in volume of blood as described in CD2 plus the portion of a
blood volume change as calculated in CD3.
$\mathrm{DAS}=\mathrm{QLO}-\mathrm{QAO}\frac{d \mathrm{VAS1}}{d \mathrm{time}}=\mathrm{DAS}\mathrm{VAS}=\mathrm{VAS1}+\mathrm{VBD}\times 0.261$
CD5:
The excess volume in the arterial tree (VAE) over and above the volume that is
required to barely fill the aorta at zero pressure is calculated by subtracting
a constant (which is equal to "VO") from the instantaneous volume in the aorta (VAS).
CD6:
Arterial pressure (PA) is equal to the excess volume in the arterial tree (VAE)
divided by a constant which is the capacitance of the arterial tree.
CD78:
The output of this block is the total pressure gradient from the arterial pressure (PA)
to the right atrial pressure (PRA).
CD5:
The excess volume in the arterial tree (VAE) over and above the volume that is
required to barely fill the aorta at zero pressure is calculated by subtracting
a constant (which is equal to "VO") from the instantaneous volume in the aorta (VAS).
CD6:
Arterial pressure (PA) is equal to the excess volume in the arterial tree (VAE)
divided by a constant which is the capacitance of the arterial tree.
CD78:
The output of this block is the total pressure gradient from the arterial pressure (PA)
to the right atrial pressure (PRA).
$\mathrm{VAE}=\mathrm{VAS}-0.495\mathrm{PA}=\frac{\mathrm{VAE}}{0.00355}\mathrm{PAG}=\mathrm{PA}-\mathrm{PRA}$
CD44 and CD45:
Calculation of the effect of arterial vascular distension on resistance caused by
the arterial pressure itself (PA), giving a multiplier output (PAM) that is then
used to calculate the effect of distension on systemic resistance. The exponential
factor (PAEX) modifies the extent to which pressure affects the degree of distension
on an exponential basis.
CD44 and CD45:
Calculation of the effect of arterial vascular distension on resistance caused by
the arterial pressure itself (PA), giving a multiplier output (PAM) that is then
used to calculate the effect of distension on systemic resistance. The exponential
factor (PAEX) modifies the extent to which pressure affects the degree of distension
on an exponential basis.
$\mathrm{PAM}=\left(\frac{\mathrm{PA}}{100}\right)^{\mathrm{PAEX}}$
CD46 and CD47:
Calculation of the effect of multiple factors on systemic arterial resistance in
the muscles and in the soft tissues besides the kidneys to give a multiplier
factor (R1). The input factors that contribute to this multiplier factor are:
a multiplier factor for the degree of sympathetic stimulation (AUM), a multiplier
factor for blood viscosity (VIM), a multiplier factor for the effect of angiotensin
on vascular resistance (ANU), a multiplier factor for the effect of antidiuretic
hormone (ADHMV), a division factor for the effect of feedback from the atrial stretch
receptors (ATRRFB), a division factor caused by dilation of the arteries in response
to changes in arterial pressure (PAM), and a multiplier factor (PAMK) for any other
effect that might constrict the arteries.
CD46 and CD47:
Calculation of the effect of multiple factors on systemic arterial resistance in
the muscles and in the soft tissues besides the kidneys to give a multiplier
factor (R1). The input factors that contribute to this multiplier factor are:
a multiplier factor for the degree of sympathetic stimulation (AUM), a multiplier
factor for blood viscosity (VIM), a multiplier factor for the effect of angiotensin
on vascular resistance (ANU), a multiplier factor for the effect of antidiuretic
hormone (ADHMV), a division factor for the effect of feedback from the atrial stretch
receptors (ATRRFB), a division factor caused by dilation of the arteries in response
to changes in arterial pressure (PAM), and a multiplier factor (PAMK) for any other
effect that might constrict the arteries.
$\mathrm{R1}=\frac{\frac{\mathrm{ANU}\mathrm{ADHMV}\mathrm{AUM}\mathrm{VIM}\mathrm{PAMK}}{\mathrm{PAM}}}{\mathrm{ATRRFB}}$
CD49:
Modification of the resistance multiplier factor (R1) in the tissues of the
body besides the muscles and the kidneys caused by the basic resistance
through these tissues (RAR), times the degree of effect of an autoregulation
multiplier factor (ARM) caused by autoregulation in these tissues, times
RMULT1 for experiments on postulations of very rapid autoregulation, and
times MYOGRS for resistance changes caused by myogenic autoregulation.
CD49:
Modification of the resistance multiplier factor (R1) in the tissues of the
body besides the muscles and the kidneys caused by the basic resistance
through these tissues (RAR), times the degree of effect of an autoregulation
multiplier factor (ARM) caused by autoregulation in these tissues, times
RMULT1 for experiments on postulations of very rapid autoregulation, and
times MYOGRS for resistance changes caused by myogenic autoregulation.
$\mathrm{NNRAR}=\mathrm{RAR}\mathrm{ARM}\mathrm{R1}\mathrm{MYOGRS}\mathrm{RMULT1}$
CD7:
The pressure gradient from the aorta to the major veins in the systemic circulation (PGS)
is equal to the pressure in the aorta (PA) minus the average pressure in the major veins (PVS).
CD7:
The pressure gradient from the aorta to the major veins in the systemic circulation (PGS)
is equal to the pressure in the aorta (PA) minus the average pressure in the major veins (PVS).
$\mathrm{PGS}=\mathrm{PA}-\mathrm{PVS}$
CD48:
Calculation of the resistance through the systemic muscles (RSM) by multiplying
the basic resistance through the muscles (RAM) times the multiplier factor
calculated in CD47 (R1), times another multiplier factor resulting from local
tissue blood flow autoregulation in the muscles (AMM), times RMULT1 for experiments
on postulations of very rapid autoregulation, and times MYOGRS for resistance
changes caused by possible myogenic autoregulation.
CD48:
Calculation of the resistance through the systemic muscles (RSM) by multiplying
the basic resistance through the muscles (RAM) times the multiplier factor
calculated in CD47 (R1), times another multiplier factor resulting from local
tissue blood flow autoregulation in the muscles (AMM), times RMULT1 for experiments
on postulations of very rapid autoregulation, and times MYOGRS for resistance
changes caused by possible myogenic autoregulation.
$\mathrm{RSM}=\mathrm{RAM}\mathrm{AMM}\mathrm{R1}\mathrm{MYOGRS}\mathrm{RMULT1}$
CD58:
Calculation of the resistance to blood flow through the nonmuscular and nonkidney
portions of the systemic vasculature (RSN) by adding the arterial portion of the
resistance as calculated from CD49 and the venous portion of the resistance
calculated from CD57.
CD58:
Calculation of the resistance to blood flow through the nonmuscular and nonkidney
portions of the systemic vasculature (RSN) by adding the arterial portion of the
resistance as calculated from CD49 and the venous portion of the resistance
calculated from CD57.
$\mathrm{RSN}=\mathrm{NNRAR}+\mathrm{NNRVR}$
CD9:
The blood flow through the muscles (BFM) is equal to the pressure gradient through
the systemic circulation to the major veins (PGS) divided by the resistance to the
blood flow through the muscles (RSM).
CD9:
The blood flow through the muscles (BFM) is equal to the pressure gradient through
the systemic circulation to the major veins (PGS) divided by the resistance to the
blood flow through the muscles (RSM).
$\mathrm{BFM}=\frac{\mathrm{PGS}}{\mathrm{RSM}}$
CD8:
Blood flow through the nonmuscular portions of the body besides the kidneys (BFN)
is equal to the pressure gradient through the systemic circulation (PGS) divided by
the resistance through the nonmuscular portions of the body besides the kidneys (RSN).
CD8:
Blood flow through the nonmuscular portions of the body besides the kidneys (BFN)
is equal to the pressure gradient through the systemic circulation (PGS) divided by
the resistance through the nonmuscular portions of the body besides the kidneys (RSN).
$\mathrm{BFN}=\frac{\mathrm{PGS}}{\mathrm{RSN}}$
CD79:
Calculation of the rate of blood flow through a fistula (FISFLO) by multiplying
a conductance factor for the fistula (FIS) times the pressure difference from the
arteries to the right atrium as calculated by Block CD78.
CD79:
Calculation of the rate of blood flow through a fistula (FISFLO) by multiplying
a conductance factor for the fistula (FIS) times the pressure difference from the
arteries to the right atrium as calculated by Block CD78.
$\mathrm{FISFLO}=\mathrm{PAG}\mathrm{FIS}$
CD10:
The rate of blood flow out of the arterial tree (QAO) is equal to the blood flow
through the muscles (BFM), the blood flow through the nonmuscular portions of
the body (BFN), the blood flow through the kidneys (RBF) and the blood flow
through any artificial AV fistulas (FISFLO).
CD10:
The rate of blood flow out of the arterial tree (QAO) is equal to the blood flow
through the muscles (BFM), the blood flow through the nonmuscular portions of
the body (BFN), the blood flow through the kidneys (RBF) and the blood flow
through any artificial AV fistulas (FISFLO).
$\mathrm{SYSFLO}=\mathrm{BFM}+\mathrm{BFN}+\mathrm{RBF}\mathrm{QAO}=\mathrm{SYSFLO}+\mathrm{FISFLO}$
CD80:
The total peripheral resistance (RTP) is equal to the total pressure drop from
the arteries to the right atrium (from Block CD78) divided by the total blood
flow through the systemic circulation (QAO).
CD80:
The total peripheral resistance (RTP) is equal to the total pressure drop from
the arteries to the right atrium (from Block CD78) divided by the total blood
flow through the systemic circulation (QAO).
$\mathrm{RTP}=\frac{\mathrm{PAG}}{\mathrm{QAO}}$