Location: Izakov, Katsnelson, Blyakhman, Markhasin, Shkylar, 1991 @ f6baf68c4c3f / izakov_katsnelson_blyakhman_markhasin_shkylar_1991.cellml

Author:
pmr2.import <nobody@models.cellml.org>
Date:
2009-06-17 14:42:13+12:00
Desc:
committing version02 of izakov_katsnelson_blyakhman_markhasin_shkylar_1991
Permanent Source URI:
https://models.cellml.org/workspace/izakov_katsnelson_blyakhman_markhasin_shkylar_1991/rawfile/f6baf68c4c3fc194dca8b59f885b02f5615a530c/izakov_katsnelson_blyakhman_markhasin_shkylar_1991.cellml

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<!--
This CellML file was generated on 25/07/2008 at 10:37:16 at a.m. using:

COR (0.9.31.979)
Copyright 2002-2008 Dr Alan Garny
http://COR.physiol.ox.ac.uk/ - COR@physiol.ox.ac.uk

CellML 1.0 was used to generate this model
http://www.CellML.org/
--><model xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" xmlns:cmeta="http://www.cellml.org/metadata/1.0#" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:bqs="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#" xmlns:cellml="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:vCard="http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#" cmeta:id="izakov_katsnelson_blyakhman_markhasin_shkylar_1991" name="izakov_katsnelson_blyakhman_markhasin_shkylar_1991">
	<documentation xmlns="http://cellml.org/tmp-documentation">
		<article>
			<articleinfo>
				<title>Cooperative Effects Due to Calcium Binding by Troponin and Their Consequences for Contraction and Relaxation of Cardiac Muscle Under Various Conditions of Mechanical Loading</title>
				<author>
					<firstname>Geoffrey</firstname>
					<surname>Nunns</surname>
					<affiliation>
						<shortaffil>Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland</shortaffil>
					</affiliation>
				</author>
			</articleinfo>
			<section id="sec_status">
				<title>Model Status</title>
				<para>
            This model runs in PCEnv and COR, but does not recreate the published results. The units are continuous throughout. The equations for F_PE and F_SE are wrong, but the F_CE equation and all related equations (the bulk of the model) look good.    
          </para>
			</section>
			<sect1 id="sec_structure">
				<title>Model Structure</title>
				<para>
Abstract: A mathematical model for the regulation of mechanical activity in cardiac muscle has been developed based on a three-element rheological model of this muscle. The contractile element has been modeled taking into account the results of extensive mechanical tests that involved the recording of length-force and force-velocity relations and muscle responses to short-time deformations during various phases of the contraction-relaxation cycle. The best agreement between the experimental and the mathematical modeling results was obtained when a postulate stating two types of cooperativity to regulate the calcium binding by troponin was introduced into the model. Cooperativity of the first type is due to the dependence of the affinity of troponin C for Ca2+ on the concentration of myosin crossbridges in the vicinity of a given troponin C. Cooperativity of the second type assumes an increase in the affinity of a given troponin C for Ca2+ when the latter is bound by molecules neighboring troponin. </para>

<para>
<informalfigure float="0" id="fig_reaction_diagram">
<mediaobject>
  <imageobject>
    <objectinfo>
      <title>model diagram</title>
    </objectinfo>
    <imagedata fileref="izakov_1991.png"/>
  </imageobject>
</mediaobject>
<caption>Schematic diagram of the Izakov et al model - a classic rheological scheme of the heart muscle including
contractile element CE and two passive elastic elements PE (parallel
one) and SE (series one). The effects of calcium and troponin (Tn) in facilitating actin-myosin binding is also highlighted.</caption>
</informalfigure>
</para>

				<para>
The complete original paper reference is cited below:
</para>
				<para>
					<ulink url="http://circres.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/69/5/1171">Cooperative Effects Due to Calcium Binding by Troponin and Their Consequences for Contraction and Relaxation of Cardiac Muscle Under Various Conditions of Mechanical Loading</ulink>, Valery Ya. Izakov, Leonid B. Katsnelson, Felix A. Blyakhman, Vladamir S. Markhasin, Tatyana F. Shklyar, 1991, <ulink url="http://circres.ahajournals.org/">
						<emphasis>Circulation Research</emphasis>
					</ulink>, 69, 1171-1184.  (<ulink url="http://circres.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/69/5/1171">PDF</ulink> versions of the article are available on the American Heart Association website.)  <ulink url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&amp;db=PubMed&amp;list_uids=1934350&amp;dopt=Abstract">PubMed ID: 1934350 </ulink>
				</para>
			</sect1>
		</article>
	</documentation>
	   <units name="um">
      <unit units="meter" prefix="micro"/>
   </units>
   <units name="millisecond">
      <unit units="second" prefix="milli"/>
   </units>
   <units name="per_um">
      <unit units="um" exponent="-1"/>
   </units>
   <units name="per_millisec">
      <unit units="millisecond" exponent="-1"/>
   </units>
   <units name="um_per_millisec">
      <unit units="um"/>
      <unit units="per_millisec"/>
   </units>
   <units name="per_millisec2">
      <unit units="per_millisec" exponent="2"/>
   </units>
   <component name="environment">
      <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="out" name="time"/>
   </component>
   <component name="equations">
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="P_CE"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="P_PE"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="P_SE"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="Ca"/>
      <variable units="per_millisec" name="C_2"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="phi_A_1"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="pi_n"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="A"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="A_1" initial_value="0"/>
      <variable units="um" name="S"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="n"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="n_1"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="n_2" initial_value="0"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="G_V"/>
      <variable units="per_millisec" name="q_V"/>
      <variable units="um_per_millisec" name="V"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="F_V"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="p_V"/>
      <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <variable units="per_um" name="alpha_1" initial_value="14.6"/>
      <variable units="per_um" name="alpha_2" initial_value="14.6"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="beta_1" initial_value="1"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="beta_2" initial_value="0.0012"/>
      <variable units="per_um" name="lambda" initial_value="30"/>
      <variable units="um_per_millisec" name="V_max" initial_value="0.0043"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="Ca_m" initial_value="45e-3"/>
      <variable units="millisecond" name="t_d" initial_value="170"/>
      <variable units="per_millisec2" name="a_c" initial_value="2.4e-4"/>
      <variable units="per_millisec2" name="b_c" initial_value="5e-4"/>
      <variable units="per_millisec" name="C_1" initial_value="2.9e-2"/>
      <variable units="per_millisec" name="C_20" initial_value="0.2"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="q_k" initial_value="4"/>
      <variable units="um_per_millisec" name="V_1"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="a" initial_value="0.25"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="m_0" initial_value="0.87"/>
      <variable units="per_um" name="g_1" initial_value="0.4"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="g_2" initial_value="0.6"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="pi_min" initial_value="5e-2"/>
      <variable units="um" name="S_0" initial_value="0.77"/>
      <variable units="per_millisec" name="q_1" initial_value="0.017"/>
      <variable units="per_millisec" name="q_2" initial_value="0.26"/>
      <variable units="per_millisec" name="q_3" initial_value="0.03"/>
      <variable units="dimensionless" name="TnC" initial_value="1"/>
      <variable units="um" public_interface="in" name="l_1"/>
      <variable units="um" public_interface="in" name="l_2"/>
      <variable units="um_per_millisec" public_interface="in" name="dl_1_dt"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V_1</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0.1</cn>
               <ci>V_max</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>Ca</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Ca_m</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <power/>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                           <apply>
                              <exp/>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>a_c</ci>
                                 </apply>
                                 <apply>
                                    <power/>
                                    <ci>time</ci>
                                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <leq/>
                     <ci>time</ci>
                     <ci>t_d</ci>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>Ca_m</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <power/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <apply>
                              <minus/>
                              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                              <apply>
                                 <exp/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <times/>
                                    <apply>
                                       <minus/>
                                       <ci>a_c</ci>
                                    </apply>
                                    <apply>
                                       <power/>
                                       <ci>time</ci>
                                       <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                    </apply>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                           <apply>
                              <exp/>
                              <apply>
                                 <times/>
                                 <apply>
                                    <minus/>
                                    <ci>b_c</ci>
                                 </apply>
                                 <apply>
                                    <power/>
                                    <apply>
                                       <minus/>
                                       <ci>time</ci>
                                       <ci>t_d</ci>
                                    </apply>
                                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                                 </apply>
                              </apply>
                           </apply>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>C_2</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>C_20</ci>
               <ci>pi_n</ci>
               <ci>phi_A_1</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>pi_n</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <ci>pi_min</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <and/>
                     <apply>
                        <leq/>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0.75</cn>
                        <ci>n</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <leq/>
                        <ci>n</ci>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <piece>
                  <apply>
                     <power/>
                     <ci>pi_min</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <minus/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">2</cn>
                           <ci>n</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0.5</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <and/>
                     <apply>
                        <leq/>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0.25</cn>
                        <ci>n</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <lt/>
                        <ci>n</ci>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0.75</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>phi_A_1</ci>
            <apply>
               <exp/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>q_k</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>A_1</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>S</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0.5</cn>
                  <ci>l_1</ci>
               </apply>
               <ci>S_0</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>A</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>A_1</ci>
                  <ci>S</ci>
               </apply>
               <cn cellml:units="um">1</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>A_1</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>C_1</ci>
                  <ci>Ca</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>TnC</ci>
                     <ci>A_1</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>C_20</ci>
                  <ci>pi_n</ci>
                  <ci>phi_A_1</ci>
                  <ci>A_1</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>n</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>n_1</ci>
               <ci>n_2</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>n_1</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <lt/>
                     <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <ci>g_1</ci>
                           <ci>l_1</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>g_2</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0</cn>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <piece>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>g_1</ci>
                        <ci>l_1</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <ci>g_2</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <and/>
                     <apply>
                        <leq/>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0</cn>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>g_1</ci>
                              <ci>l_1</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <ci>g_2</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <leq/>
                        <apply>
                           <plus/>
                           <apply>
                              <times/>
                              <ci>g_1</ci>
                              <ci>l_1</ci>
                           </apply>
                           <ci>g_2</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <apply>
               <diff/>
               <bvar>
                  <ci>time</ci>
               </bvar>
               <ci>n_2</ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>q_V</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <ci>m_0</ci>
                     <ci>G_V</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>n_2</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>q_V</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <apply>
                     <minus/>
                     <ci>q_1</ci>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <apply>
                           <times/>
                           <ci>q_2</ci>
                           <ci>V</ci>
                        </apply>
                        <ci>V_max</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                     <leq/>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                     <cn cellml:units="um_per_millisec">0</cn>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <ci>q_3</ci>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>G_V</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                     <times/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">0.6</cn>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                  </apply>
                  <ci>V_max</ci>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>V</ci>
            <apply>
               <minus/>
               <ci>dl_1_dt</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>F_V</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci>a</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <plus/>
                     <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
                     <apply>
                        <divide/>
                        <ci>V</ci>
                        <ci>V_max</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci>a</ci>
                  <apply>
                     <divide/>
                     <ci>V</ci>
                     <ci>V_max</ci>
                  </apply>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>p_V</ci>
            <apply>
               <divide/>
               <ci>F_V</ci>
               <ci>G_V</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>P_CE</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>lambda</ci>
               <ci>S</ci>
               <ci>A_1</ci>
               <ci>n</ci>
               <ci>p_V</ci>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>P_PE</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>beta_2</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>alpha_2</ci>
                        <ci>l_2</ci>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>P_SE</ci>
            <apply>
               <times/>
               <ci>beta_1</ci>
               <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                     <exp/>
                     <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci>alpha_1</ci>
                        <apply>
                           <minus/>
                           <ci>l_2</ci>
                           <ci>l_1</ci>
                        </apply>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless">1</cn>
               </apply>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <component name="user_defined">
      <variable units="um" public_interface="out" name="l_1"/>
      <variable units="um" public_interface="out" name="l_2"/>
      <variable units="um_per_millisec" public_interface="out" name="dl_1_dt"/>
      <variable units="millisecond" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
      <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>dl_1_dt</ci>
            <cn cellml:units="um_per_millisec">0</cn>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>l_1</ci>
            <piecewise>
               <piece>
                  <cn cellml:units="um">0</cn>
                  <apply>
                     <and/>
                     <apply>
                        <leq/>
                        <cn cellml:units="millisecond">200</cn>
                        <ci>time</ci>
                     </apply>
                     <apply>
                        <leq/>
                        <ci>time</ci>
                        <cn cellml:units="millisecond">201</cn>
                     </apply>
                  </apply>
               </piece>
               <otherwise>
                  <cn cellml:units="um">0</cn>
               </otherwise>
            </piecewise>
         </apply>
         <apply>
            <eq/>
            <ci>l_2</ci>
            <apply>
               <plus/>
               <ci>l_1</ci>
               <cn cellml:units="um">1.87</cn>
            </apply>
         </apply>
      </math>
   </component>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="equations" component_1="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="user_defined" component_1="environment"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
   </connection>
   <connection>
      <map_components component_2="user_defined" component_1="equations"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="dl_1_dt" variable_1="dl_1_dt"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="l_1" variable_1="l_1"/>
      <map_variables variable_2="l_2" variable_1="l_2"/>
   </connection>
<rdf:RDF>
  <rdf:Seq rdf:about="rdf:#b84308e1-096e-49f4-91b8-23603b811107">
    <rdf:li rdf:resource="rdf:#1e14eb9f-73e7-4fb0-94a1-505591bb8697"/>
    <rdf:li rdf:resource="rdf:#86b512b3-cf34-43b7-814a-05cb308360c2"/>
    <rdf:li rdf:resource="rdf:#f87232e3-b1e7-4c7a-8013-c4848ca180f3"/>
    <rdf:li rdf:resource="rdf:#33a4cff3-450c-44e3-a1c4-d1c24a538749"/>
    <rdf:li rdf:resource="rdf:#671ee595-e865-44e6-8e5e-68a6d723dae8"/>
  </rdf:Seq>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#1e14eb9f-73e7-4fb0-94a1-505591bb8697">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/>
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#191de60b-d1dd-4ca7-b2a4-93084a734978"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="">
    <dc:publisher/>
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#d1c760fb-af3f-44ef-bd76-bc89fd1968cb"/>
    <dcterms:created rdf:resource="rdf:#da2eff80-5d60-402e-80de-0b613d555184"/>
    <dc:creator rdf:resource="rdf:#c25ab1a8-51c8-43fa-9b2e-78273ccdb4ad"/>
    <cmeta:modification rdf:resource="rdf:#7a4e3680-baa0-4d72-935e-5f0241be0c7f"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#e0069b30-c204-4dce-afce-3d74b652b0ad">
    <vCard:FN>Geoff Nunns</vCard:FN>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#11039a7a-3ada-44e1-b782-69aa841f3c89">
    <vCard:Given>Geoffrey</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Nunns</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>Rogan</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#671ee595-e865-44e6-8e5e-68a6d723dae8">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/>
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#38c85435-dbd1-4411-8470-a08f9338cb25"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#72400ead-0fc0-4abd-b831-054f13d243ae">
    <dc:creator rdf:resource="rdf:#1ad863b9-a670-4a8f-ba28-456209e5d80c"/>
    <rdf:value>This model runs in PCEnv and COR, but does not recreate the published results. The units are continuous throughout. The equations for F_PE and F_SE are wrong, but the F_CE equation and all related equations (the bulk of the model) look good. Further curation is required. The current version of the model simulates an isometric contraction. </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#d1c760fb-af3f-44ef-bd76-bc89fd1968cb">
    <dc:creator rdf:resource="rdf:#e0069b30-c204-4dce-afce-3d74b652b0ad"/>
    <rdf:value>This model runs in PCEnv and COR, but does not recreate the published results. The units are continuous throughout. The equations for F_PE and F_SE are wrong, but the F_CE equation and all related equations (the bulk of the model) look good.  Further curation is required. The current version of the model simulates an isometric contraction. </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#f7cececf-aa62-4099-af58-8db20533af36">
    <vCard:Orgname>Auckland Bioengineering Institute</vCard:Orgname>
    <vCard:Orgunit>CellML Team</vCard:Orgunit>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#7a4e3680-baa0-4d72-935e-5f0241be0c7f">
    <dcterms:modified rdf:resource="rdf:#31eb6bc3-217d-473d-bea8-16339ca52635"/>
    <rdf:value>Added components to increase modularity. </rdf:value>
    <cmeta:modifier rdf:resource="rdf:#292a9c18-fc0f-4f74-b736-651df2c605fe"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#9d936746-0e9c-428a-9b6a-4f7302ef9eb9">
    <vCard:Given>Geoffrey</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Nunns</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>Rogan</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6cbce911-5972-4408-bc70-b0ac63d412d0">
    <vCard:Given>Leonid</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Katsnelson</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>B.</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#31eb6bc3-217d-473d-bea8-16339ca52635">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>2008-07-25T10:38:05+12:00</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="#izakov_katsnelson_blyakhman_markhasin_shkylar_1991">
    <bqs:reference rdf:resource="rdf:#732d4760-13ce-4f12-babe-1561022c6f8b"/>
<bqs:reference rdf:parseType="Resource">
  <dc:subject rdf:parseType="Resource">
    <bqs:subject_type>keyword</bqs:subject_type>
    <rdf:value>
      <rdf:Bag>
        <rdf:li>calcium dynamics</rdf:li>
        <rdf:li>myofilament mechanics</rdf:li>
        <rdf:li>excitation-contraction coupling</rdf:li>
      </rdf:Bag>
    </rdf:value>
  </dc:subject>
</bqs:reference>
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#72400ead-0fc0-4abd-b831-054f13d243ae"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#625d2fa7-99ac-47d9-a597-5c469c378d44">
    <dc:creator rdf:resource="rdf:#b84308e1-096e-49f4-91b8-23603b811107"/>
    <dc:title>Cooperative Effects Due to Calcium Binding by Troponin and Their Consequences for Contraction and Relaxation of Cardiac Muscle Under Various Conditions of Mechanical Loading</dc:title>
    <bqs:volume>69</bqs:volume>
    <bqs:first_page>1171</bqs:first_page>
    <bqs:Journal rdf:resource="rdf:#4eb4ffc5-0870-4b7b-bf9c-d4ff13c130f7"/>
    <dcterms:issued rdf:resource="rdf:#0d75c874-9513-4bbc-ab9a-fa9a3c9857ca"/>
    <bqs:last_page>1184</bqs:last_page>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#e86cd58d-4d5a-4358-96af-6daf0ea2ba32">
    <vCard:Given>Felix</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Blyakhman</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>A.</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#95a21a8a-504d-4ce2-9b19-1e9eee80bc08">
    <vCard:Given>Vladamir</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Markhasin</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>S.</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#e87d84f3-3c1b-4ae6-960a-37fc64f7f1ff">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://imc.org/vCard/3.0#internet"/>
    <rdf:value>gnunns1@jhem.jhu.edu</rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#732d4760-13ce-4f12-babe-1561022c6f8b">
    <bqs:Pubmed_id>1934350</bqs:Pubmed_id>
    <bqs:JournalArticle rdf:resource="rdf:#625d2fa7-99ac-47d9-a597-5c469c378d44"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#292a9c18-fc0f-4f74-b736-651df2c605fe">
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#9d936746-0e9c-428a-9b6a-4f7302ef9eb9"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c25ab1a8-51c8-43fa-9b2e-78273ccdb4ad">
    <vCard:ORG rdf:resource="rdf:#f7cececf-aa62-4099-af58-8db20533af36"/>
    <vCard:EMAIL rdf:resource="rdf:#e87d84f3-3c1b-4ae6-960a-37fc64f7f1ff"/>
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#11039a7a-3ada-44e1-b782-69aa841f3c89"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#1ad863b9-a670-4a8f-ba28-456209e5d80c">
    <vCard:FN>Geoff Nunns</vCard:FN>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#86b512b3-cf34-43b7-814a-05cb308360c2">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/>
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#6cbce911-5972-4408-bc70-b0ac63d412d0"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#33a4cff3-450c-44e3-a1c4-d1c24a538749">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/>
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#95a21a8a-504d-4ce2-9b19-1e9eee80bc08"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#da2eff80-5d60-402e-80de-0b613d555184">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>2008-07-16T00:00:00+00:00</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#191de60b-d1dd-4ca7-b2a4-93084a734978">
    <vCard:Given>Valery</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Izakov</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>Ya.</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#0d75c874-9513-4bbc-ab9a-fa9a3c9857ca">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>1991-00-00 00:00</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#4eb4ffc5-0870-4b7b-bf9c-d4ff13c130f7">
    <dc:title>Circulation Research</dc:title>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#f87232e3-b1e7-4c7a-8013-c4848ca180f3">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/>
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#e86cd58d-4d5a-4358-96af-6daf0ea2ba32"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#38c85435-dbd1-4411-8470-a08f9338cb25">
    <vCard:Given>Tatyana</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Shkylar</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>F.</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
</rdf:RDF>
</model>