Location: Luo, Rudy, 1994 @ e58e5df49727 / luo_rudy_1994.cellml

Author:
Catherine Lloyd <c.lloyd@auckland.ac.nz>
Date:
2010-07-08 20:05:06+12:00
Desc:
Removed old image. Updated documentation, deleted duplicated keywords, added a curation comment.
Permanent Source URI:
https://models.cellml.org/workspace/luo_rudy_1994/rawfile/e58e5df49727958cfa7a7cbac00bd74bcda3fcab/luo_rudy_1994.cellml

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<!--  FILE :  LR_II_model_1994.xml

CREATED :  28th March 2002

LAST MODIFIED : 30th July 2003

AUTHOR :  Catherine Lloyd
          The Bioengineering Institute
          The University of Auckland
          
MODEL STATUS :  This model conforms to the CellML 1.0 Specification released on
10th August 2001, and the CellML Metadata 1.0 Specification released on 16th
January, 2002.

DESCRIPTION :  This file contains a CellML description of the mammalian
ventricular action potential based on the Luo-Rudy II model, 1994.  This model
is a development of the LR-I model.  In particular, the LR-II model describes
the processes which regulate [Ca]i (intracellular Calcium concentration), and
the movement of calcium ions through the cell and to and from the sarcoplasmic
reticulum. 

CHANGES: 
  18/07/2002 - CML - Added more metadata.
  09/04/2003 - AAC - Added publication date information.  
  05/06/2003 - CML - Fixed MathML in a few components.
  30/07/2003 - CML - Fixed MathML in a few components.
-->
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<documentation xmlns="http://cellml.org/tmp-documentation">
<article>
  <articleinfo>
  <title>A dynamic model of the cardiac ventricular action potential. I. Simulations of ionic currents and concentration changes</title>
  <author>
    <firstname>Catherine</firstname>
          <surname>Lloyd</surname>
      <affiliation>
      <shortaffil>Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland</shortaffil>
    </affiliation>
  </author>
</articleinfo>
  <section id="sec_status">
    <title>Model Status</title>
    <para>
        This CellML model has been written to be compatible with CMISS. Alone it cannot be run and a new version will have to be created.
          </para>
  </section>
  <sect1 id="sec_structure">
<title>Model Structure</title>

<para>
ABSTRACT: A mathematical model of the cardiac ventricular action potential is presented. In our previous work, the membrane Na+ current and K+ currents were formulated. The present article focuses on processes that regulate intracellular Ca2+ and depend on its concentration. The model presented here for the mammalian ventricular action potential is based mostly on the guinea pig ventricular cell. However, it provides the framework for modeling other types of ventricular cells with appropriate modifications made to account for species differences. The following processes are formulated: Ca2+ current through the L-type channel (ICa), the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger, Ca2+ release and uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), buffering of Ca2+ in the SR and in the myoplasm, a Ca2+ pump in the sarcolemma, the Na(+)-K+ pump, and a nonspecific Ca(2+)-activated membrane current. Activation of ICa is an order of magnitude faster than in previous models. Inactivation of ICa depends on both the membrane voltage and [Ca2+]i. SR is divided into two subcompartments, a network SR (NSR) and a junctional SR (JSR). Functionally, Ca2+ enters the NSR and translocates to the JSR following a monoexponential function. Release of Ca2+ occurs at JSR and can be triggered by two different mechanisms, Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release and spontaneous release. The model provides the basis for the study of arrhythmogenic activity of the single myocyte including afterdepolarizations and triggered activity. It can simulate cellular responses under different degrees of Ca2+ overload. Such simulations are presented in our accompanying article in this issue of Circulation Research.</para>

<para>
The original paper reference is cited below:
</para>

<para>
A dynamic model of the cardiac ventricular action potential. I. Simulations of ionic currents and concentration changes, Ching-hsing Luo and Yoram Rudy, 1994, <emphasis>Circulation Research</emphasis>, 74, 1071-1097.  <ulink url="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7514509">PubMed ID: 7514509</ulink>
</para>

<informalfigure float="0" id="fig_cell_diagram">
<mediaobject>
  <imageobject>
    <objectinfo>
      <title>cell diagram of the LR-II model showing ionic currents, pumps and exchangers within the sarcolemma and the sarcoplasmic reticulum</title>
    </objectinfo>
    <imagedata fileref="luo_1994.png"/>
  </imageobject>
</mediaobject>
<caption>A schematic diagram describing the ionic currents, pumps and exchangers that are captured in the LR-II model.  The intracellular compartment is the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), which is divided into the two subcompartments, the network SR (NSR) and the junctional SR (JSR).  Ca<superscript>2+</superscript> buffers are present in both the cytoplasm and the JSR.</caption>
</informalfigure>

</sect1>
</article>
</documentation>
  
 
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          <minus/>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci> alpha_j </ci>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <ci> j </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci> beta_j </ci>
            <ci> j </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="L_type_Ca_channel" name="L_type_Ca_channel">
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="out" name="i_Ca_L"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="out" name="i_CaCa"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="out" name="i_CaK"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="out" name="i_CaNa"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="gamma_Nai" initial_value="0.75"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="gamma_Nao" initial_value="0.75"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="gamma_Ki" initial_value="0.75"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="gamma_Ko" initial_value="0.75"/>
    
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" name="I_CaCa"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" name="I_CaK"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" name="I_CaNa"/>
    <variable units="mm_per_ms" name="P_Ca" initial_value="5.4e-6"/>
    <variable units="mm_per_ms" name="P_Na" initial_value="6.75e-9"/>
    <variable units="mm_per_ms" name="P_K" initial_value="1.93e-9"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="gamma_Cai" initial_value="1.0"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="gamma_Cao" initial_value="0.34"/>
   
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="time"/>
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="V"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="Cai"/>
    <variable units="gas_constant_units" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
    <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
    <variable units="faradays_constant_units" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Cao"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Nao"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Ko"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Nai"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Ki"/>
    
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="d"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="f"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="f_Ca"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_CaCa_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_CaCa_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_CaCa </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> d </ci>
          <ci> f </ci>
          <ci> f_Ca </ci>
          <ci> I_CaCa </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
      
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_CaNa_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_CaNa_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_CaNa </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> d </ci>
          <ci> f </ci>
          <ci> f_Ca </ci>
          <ci> I_CaNa </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
      
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_CaK_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_CaK_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_CaK </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> d </ci>
          <ci> f </ci>
          <ci> f_Ca </ci>
          <ci> I_CaK </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
     
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="I_CaCa_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="I_CaCa_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> I_CaCa </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> P_Ca </ci>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> V </ci>
              <apply>
                <power/>
                <ci> F </ci>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> R </ci>
              <ci> T </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <ci> gamma_Cai </ci>
                <ci> Cai </ci>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
                      <ci> V </ci>
                      <ci> F </ci>
                    </apply>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <ci> R </ci> 
                      <ci> T </ci>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <ci> gamma_Cao </ci>
                <ci> Cao </ci>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <ci> F </ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <ci> R </ci>
                    <ci> T </ci>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
     
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="I_CaNa_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="I_CaNa_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> I_CaNa </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> P_Na </ci>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> V </ci>
              <apply>
                <power/>
                <ci> F </ci>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> R </ci>
              <ci> T </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <ci> gamma_Nai </ci>
                <ci> Nai </ci>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
                      <ci> V </ci>
                      <ci> F </ci>
                    </apply>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <ci> R </ci> 
                      <ci> T </ci>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <ci> gamma_Nao </ci>
                <ci> Nao </ci>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <ci> F </ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <ci> R </ci>
                    <ci> T </ci>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
      
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="I_CaK_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="I_CaK_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> I_CaK </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> P_K </ci>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> V </ci>
              <apply>
                <power/>
                <ci> F </ci>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> R </ci>
              <ci> T </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <ci> gamma_Ki </ci>
                <ci> Ki </ci>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
                      <ci> V </ci>
                      <ci> F </ci>
                    </apply>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <ci> R </ci> 
                      <ci> T </ci>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <ci> gamma_Ko </ci>
                <ci> Ko </ci>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <ci> F </ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <ci> R </ci>
                    <ci> T </ci>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
      
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_Ca_L_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_Ca_L_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_Ca_L </ci>
        <apply> <plus/>
          <ci> i_CaCa </ci>
          <ci> i_CaK </ci>
          <ci> i_CaNa </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="L_type_Ca_channel_d_gate" name="L_type_Ca_channel_d_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="d" initial_value="0.0"/> 

    <variable units="per_ms" name="alpha_d"/>
    <variable units="per_ms" name="beta_d"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="d_infinity"/>
    <variable units="ms" name="tau_d"/>
    
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="alpha_d_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="alpha_d_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> alpha_d </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <ci> d_infinity </ci>
          <ci> tau_d </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>

    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="d_infinity_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="d_infinity_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> d_infinity </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <minus/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <plus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="mV"> 10.0 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="mV"> 6.24 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>

    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="tau_d_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="tau_d_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> tau_d </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> d_infinity </ci>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <plus/>
                      <ci> V </ci>
                      <cn cellml:units="mV"> 10.0 </cn>
                    </apply>
                    <cn cellml:units="mV"> 6.24 </cn>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <cn cellml:units="per_mV_ms"> 0.035 </cn>
              <apply>
                <plus/>
                <ci> V </ci>
                <cn cellml:units="mV"> 10.0 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
      
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="beta_d_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="beta_d_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> beta_d </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <ci> d_infinity </ci>
          </apply>
          <ci> tau_d </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
     
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="dd_dt_eq">
      <apply id="dd_dt">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> d </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci> alpha_d </ci>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <ci> d </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci> beta_d </ci>
            <ci> d </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="L_type_Ca_channel_f_gate" name="L_type_Ca_channel_f_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="f" initial_value="1.0"/> 

    <variable units="per_ms" name="alpha_f"/>
    <variable units="per_ms" name="beta_f"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="f_infinity"/>
    <variable units="ms" name="tau_f"/>
    
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
   
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="alpha_f_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="alpha_f_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> alpha_f </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <ci> f_infinity </ci>
          <ci> tau_f </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
      
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="f_infinity_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="f_infinity_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> f_infinity </ci>
        <apply>
          <plus/>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <plus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="mV"> 35.06 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="mV"> 8.6 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.6 </cn>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <minus/>
                    <cn cellml:units="mV"> 50.0 </cn>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="mV"> 20.0 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
      
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="tau_f_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="tau_f_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> tau_f </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <cn cellml:units="ms"> 1.0 </cn>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.0197 </cn>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                    <power/>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <cn cellml:units="per_mV"> 0.0337 </cn>
                      <apply>
                        <plus/>
                        <ci> V </ci>
                        <cn cellml:units="mV"> 10.0 </cn>
                      </apply>
                    </apply>
                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.02 </cn>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
    
	<math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="beta_f_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="beta_f_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> beta_f </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <ci> f_infinity </ci>
          </apply>
          <ci> tau_f </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
     
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="df_dt_eq">
      <apply id="df_dt">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> f </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci> alpha_f </ci>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <ci> f </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci> beta_f </ci>
            <ci> f </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="L_type_Ca_channel_f_Ca_gate" name="L_type_Ca_channel_f_Ca_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="f_Ca"/> 

    <variable units="mM" name="Km_Ca" initial_value="0.6e-3"/>
    
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Cai"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="f_Ca_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="f_Ca_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> f_Ca </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <power/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <ci> Cai </ci>
                <ci> Km_Ca </ci>
              </apply>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="time_dependent_potassium_current" name="time_dependent_potassium_current">
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="out" name="i_K"/>
    
    <variable units="mS_per_mm2" name="g_K_max" initial_value="2.82e-3"/>
    <variable units="mS_per_mm2" name="g_K"/>
    <variable units="mV" name="E_K"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="PR_NaK" initial_value="0.01833"/>
    
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="time"/>
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="V"/>
    <variable units="gas_constant_units" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
    <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
    <variable units="faradays_constant_units" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Ko"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Ki"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Nao"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Nai"/>
    
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="X"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="Xi"/>
   
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="g_K_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="g_K_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> g_K </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci>g_K_max</ci>
          <apply>
            <root/>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <ci> Ko </ci>
              <cn cellml:units="mM"> 5.4 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>                                                              
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="E_K_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="E_K_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> E_K </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> R </ci>
              <ci> T </ci>
            </apply>
            <ci> F </ci>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <ln/>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <apply>
                <plus/>
                <ci> Ko </ci>
                <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci> PR_NaK </ci>
                  <ci> Nao </ci>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <plus/>
                <ci> Ki </ci>
                <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci> PR_NaK </ci>
                  <ci> Nai </ci>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
     
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_K_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_K_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_K </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> g_K </ci>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <ci> X </ci>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
          </apply>
          <ci> Xi </ci>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> V </ci>
            <ci> E_K </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="time_dependent_potassium_current_X_gate" name="time_dependent_potassium_current_X_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="X" initial_value="0.0"/>

    <variable units="per_ms" name="alpha_X"/>
    <variable units="per_ms" name="beta_X"/>
    
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
   
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="alpha_X_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="alpha_X_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> alpha_X </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <cn cellml:units="per_mV_ms"> 0.0000719 </cn>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <ci> V </ci>
              <cn cellml:units="mV"> 30.0 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -0.148 </cn>
                <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="mV"> 30.0 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
      
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="beta_X_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="beta_X_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> beta_X </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <cn cellml:units="per_mV_ms"> 0.000131 </cn>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <ci> V </ci>
              <cn cellml:units="mV"> 30.0 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.0687 </cn>
                <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="mV"> 30.0 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
     
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="dX_dt_eq">
      <apply id="dX_dt">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> X </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci> alpha_X </ci>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <ci> X </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci> beta_X </ci>
            <ci> X </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>                                                                     
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="time_dependent_potassium_current_Xi_gate" name="time_dependent_potassium_current_Xi_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="Xi"/>

    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="Xi_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="Xi_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> Xi </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="mV"> 56.26 </cn>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="mV"> 32.1 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply> 
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="time_independent_potassium_current" name="time_independent_potassium_current">
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="out" name="i_K1"/>
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="out" private_interface="out" name="E_K1"/>
    
    <variable units="mS_per_mm2" name="g_K1_max" initial_value="7.5e-3"/>
    <variable units="mS_per_mm2" name="g_K1"/>
    
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="time"/>
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" private_interface="out" name="V"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Ko"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Ki"/>
    <variable units="gas_constant_units" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
    <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
    <variable units="faradays_constant_units" public_interface="in" name="F"/> 
    
    <variable units="dimensionless" private_interface="in" name="K1_infinity"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="g_K1_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="g_K1_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> g_K1 </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci>g_K1_max</ci>
          <apply>
            <root/>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <ci> Ko </ci>
              <cn cellml:units="mM"> 5.4 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
     
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="E_K1_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="E_K1_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> E_K1 </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> R </ci>
              <ci> T </ci>
            </apply>
            <ci> F </ci>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <ln/>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <ci> Ko </ci>
              <ci> Ki </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_K1_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_K1_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_K1 </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> g_K1 </ci>
          <ci> K1_infinity </ci>
          <apply>
            <minus/>     
            <ci> V </ci>
            <ci> E_K1 </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="time_independent_potassium_current_K1_gate" name="time_independent_potassium_current_K1_gate">
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="out" name="K1_infinity"/> 
    <variable units="per_ms" name="alpha_K1"/>
    <variable units="per_ms" name="beta_K1"/>
    
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" name="E_K1"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="alpha_K1_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="alpha_K1_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> alpha_K1 </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <cn cellml:units="per_ms"> 1.02 </cn>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <cn cellml:units="per_mV"> 0.2385 </cn>
                <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                    <minus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <ci> E_K1 </ci>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="mV"> 59.215 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
      
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="beta_K1_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="beta_K1_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> beta_K1 </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <cn cellml:units="per_ms"> 0.49124 </cn>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.08032 </cn>
                  <apply>
                    <minus/>
                    <apply>
                      <plus/>
                      <ci> V </ci>
                      <cn cellml:units="mV"> 5.476 </cn>
                    </apply>
                    <ci> E_K1 </ci>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.06175 </cn>
                <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <apply>
                    <plus/>
                    <ci> E_K1 </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="mV"> 594.31 </cn>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <cn cellml:units="per_mV"> -0.5143 </cn>
                <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <apply>
                    <minus/>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <ci> E_K1 </ci>
                  </apply>
                  <cn cellml:units="mV"> 4.753 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
     
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="K1_infinity_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="K1_infinity_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> K1_infinity </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <ci> alpha_K1 </ci>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <ci> alpha_K1 </ci>
            <ci> beta_K1 </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="plateau_potassium_current" name="plateau_potassium_current">
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="out" name="i_Kp"/>
    
    <variable units="mV" name="E_Kp"/>
    <variable units="mS_per_mm2" name="g_Kp" initial_value="1.83e-4"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="Kp"/>
    
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" name="E_K1"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="E_Kp_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="E_Kp_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> E_Kp </ci>
        <ci> E_K1 </ci>
      </apply>
    </math>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="Kp_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="Kp_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> Kp </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <cn cellml:units="mV"> 7.488 </cn>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="mV"> 5.98 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply> 
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
     
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_Kp_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_Kp_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_Kp </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> g_Kp </ci>
          <ci> Kp </ci>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> V </ci>
            <ci> E_Kp </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="sarcolemmal_calcium_pump" name="sarcolemmal_calcium_pump">
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="out" name="i_p_Ca"/>
    
    <variable units="mM" name="K_mpCa" initial_value="0.5e-3"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" name="I_pCa" initial_value="1.15e-2"/>
    
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Cai"/>   
 
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_p_Ca_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_p_Ca_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_p_Ca </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> I_pCa </ci>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <ci> Cai </ci>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <ci> K_mpCa </ci>
              <ci> Cai </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="sodium_background_current" name="sodium_background_current">
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="out" name="i_Na_b"/>
    
    <variable units="mS_per_mm2" name="g_Nab" initial_value="1.41e-5"/>
    <variable units="mV" name="E_NaN"/>
    
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" name="E_Na"/> 
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="E_NaN_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="E_NaN_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> E_NaN </ci>
        <ci> E_Na </ci>
      </apply>
    </math>
     
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_Na_b_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_Na_b_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_Na_b </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> g_Nab </ci>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> V </ci>
            <ci> E_NaN </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="calcium_background_current" name="calcium_background_current">
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="out" name="i_Ca_b"/>
    
    <variable units="mS_per_mm2" name="g_Cab" initial_value="3.016e-5"/>
    <variable units="mV" name="E_CaN"/>
    
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="gas_constant_units" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
    <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
    <variable units="faradays_constant_units" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Cai"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Cao"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="E_CaN_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="E_CaN_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> E_CaN </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> R </ci>
              <ci> T </ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
              <ci> F </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <ln/>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <ci> Cao </ci>
              <ci> Cai </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
      
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_Ca_b_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_Ca_b_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_Ca_b </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> g_Cab </ci>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> V </ci>
            <ci> E_CaN </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="sodium_potassium_pump" name="sodium_potassium_pump">
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="out" name="i_NaK"/>
    
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" name="I_NaK" initial_value="1.5e-2"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="f_NaK"/>
    <variable units="mM" name="K_mNai" initial_value="10.0"/>
    <variable units="mM" name="K_mKo" initial_value="1.5"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="sigma"/>
    
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="gas_constant_units" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
    <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
    <variable units="faradays_constant_units" public_interface="in" name="F"/>  
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Nai"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Nao"/>   
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Ko"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="f_NaK_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> f_NaK </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
          <apply>
            <plus/>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.1245 </cn>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> -0.1 </cn>
                    <apply>
                      <divide/>
                      <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci> V </ci>
                        <ci> F </ci>
                      </apply>
                      <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci> R </ci>
                        <ci> T </ci>
                      </apply>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 0.0365 </cn>
              <ci> sigma </ci>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <minus/>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <ci> V </ci>
                      <ci> F </ci>
                    </apply>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <ci> R </ci>
                      <ci> T </ci>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>

    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <apply id="sigma_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> sigma </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 7.0 </cn>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <ci> Nao </ci>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 67.3 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
 
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_NaK_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_NaK_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_NaK </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> I_NaK </ci>
          <ci> f_NaK </ci>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <power/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <ci> K_mNai </ci>
                  <ci> Nai </ci>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.5 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <ci> Ko </ci>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <ci> Ko </ci>
              <ci> K_mKo </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="non_specific_calcium_activated_current" name="non_specific_calcium_activated_current">
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="out" name="i_ns_Ca"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="out" name="i_ns_Na"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="out" name="i_ns_K"/>
    
    <variable units="mm_per_ms" name="P_ns_Ca" initial_value="1.75e-9"/>
   
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="in" name="gamma_Nai"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="in" name="gamma_Nao"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="in" name="gamma_Ki"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" public_interface="in" name="gamma_Ko"/>
    <variable units="gas_constant_units" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
    <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
    <variable units="faradays_constant_units" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Cao"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Nao"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Ko"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Nai"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Ki"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" name="I_ns_Na"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" name="I_ns_K"/>
    <variable units="mM" name="K_m_ns_Ca" initial_value="1.2e-3"/>
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Cai"/>
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" name="V"/>

    <variable units="mV" name="Vns"/>
    <variable units="mV" name="EnsCa"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="EnsCa_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="EnsCa_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> EnsCa </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> R </ci>
              <ci> T </ci>
            </apply>
            <ci> F </ci>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <ln/>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <apply>
                <plus/>
                <ci>Ko</ci>
                <ci>Nao</ci>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <plus/>
                <ci>Ki</ci>
                <ci>Nai</ci>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>

    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="Vns_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="Vns_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci>Vns</ci>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <ci>V</ci>
          <ci>EnsCa</ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
 
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_ns_Na_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_ns_Na_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_ns_Na </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> I_ns_Na </ci>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <power/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <ci> K_m_ns_Ca </ci>
                  <ci> Cai </ci>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
 
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_ns_K_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_ns_K_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_ns_K </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> I_ns_K </ci>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <power/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <ci> K_m_ns_Ca </ci>
                  <ci> Cai </ci>
                </apply>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>

    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_ns_Ca_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_ns_Ca_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_ns_Ca </ci>
        <apply>
          <plus/>
          <ci> i_ns_Na </ci>
          <ci> i_ns_K </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
    
	<math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="I_ns_Na_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="I_ns_Na_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> I_ns_Na </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> P_ns_Ca </ci>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> Vns </ci>
              <apply>
                <power/>
                <ci> F </ci>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> R </ci>
              <ci> T </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <ci> gamma_Nai </ci>
                <ci> Nai </ci>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
                      <ci> Vns </ci>
                      <ci> F </ci>
                    </apply>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <ci> R </ci> 
                      <ci> T </ci>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <ci> gamma_Nao </ci>
                <ci> Nao </ci>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
                    <ci> Vns </ci>
                    <ci> F </ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <ci> R </ci>
                    <ci> T </ci>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>

    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="I_ns_K_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="I_ns_K_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> I_ns_K </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> P_ns_Ca </ci>
          <apply>
            <power/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> Vns </ci>
              <apply>
                <power/>
                <ci> F </ci>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> R </ci>
              <ci> T </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <ci> gamma_Ki </ci>
                <ci> Ki </ci>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
                      <ci> Vns </ci>
                      <ci> F </ci>
                    </apply>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <ci> R </ci> 
                      <ci> T </ci>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <ci> gamma_Ko </ci>
                <ci> Ko </ci>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
                    <ci> Vns </ci>
                    <ci> F </ci>
                  </apply>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <ci> R </ci>
                    <ci> T </ci>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="Na_Ca_exchanger" name="Na_Ca_exchanger">
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="out" name="i_NaCa"/>
    
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" name="K_NaCa" initial_value="20.0"/>
    <variable units="mM" name="K_mNa" initial_value="87.5"/>
    <variable units="mM" name="K_mCa" initial_value="1.38"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="K_sat" initial_value="0.1"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="eta" initial_value="0.35"/>
    
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="mV" public_interface="in" name="V"/>
    <variable units="gas_constant_units" public_interface="in" name="R"/>
    <variable units="kelvin" public_interface="in" name="T"/>
    <variable units="faradays_constant_units" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Nai"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Nao"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Cai"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Cao"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="Na_Ca_exchanger_eq">
      <apply id="Na_Ca_exchanger">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_NaCa </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/> 
          <ci> K_NaCa </ci>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <apply>
                <power/>
                <ci> K_mNa </ci>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <power/>
                <ci> Nao </ci>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <ci> K_mCa </ci>
              <ci> Cao </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <ci> K_sat </ci>
                <apply>
                  <exp/>
                  <apply>
                    <times/>
                    <apply>
                      <minus/>
                      <ci> eta </ci>
                      <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
                    </apply>
                    <ci> V </ci>
                    <apply>
                      <divide/>
                      <ci> F </ci>
                      <apply>
                        <times/>
                        <ci> R </ci>
                        <ci> T </ci>
                      </apply>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci> eta </ci>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <ci> F </ci>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <ci> R </ci>
                      <ci> T </ci>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <power/>
                <ci> Nai </ci>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
              </apply>
              <ci> Cao </ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <apply>
                <exp/>
                <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <apply>
                    <minus/>
                    <ci> eta </ci>
                    <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
                  </apply>
                  <ci> V </ci>
                  <apply>
                    <divide/>
                    <ci> F </ci>
                    <apply>
                      <times/>
                      <ci> R </ci>
                      <ci> T </ci>
                    </apply>
                  </apply>
                </apply>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <power/>
                <ci> Nao </ci>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
              </apply>
              <ci> Cai </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
  <component cmeta:id="calcium_fluxes_in_the_SR" name="calcium_fluxes_in_the_SR">
    <variable units="mM_per_ms" public_interface="out" name="i_rel"/>
    <variable units="mM_per_ms" public_interface="out" name="i_up"/>
    <variable units="mM_per_ms" public_interface="out" name="i_leak"/>  
    <variable units="mM_per_ms" public_interface="out" name="i_tr"/>
                            
    <variable units="per_ms" name="G_rel"/>
    <variable units="per_ms" name="G_rel_peak"/>
    <variable units="per_ms" name="G_rel_max" initial_value="60.0"/>
    <variable units="ms" name="tau_on" initial_value="2.0"/>
    <variable units="ms" name="tau_off" initial_value="2.0"/>
    <variable units="ms" name="t_CICR"/>
    <variable units="ms" name="tau_tr" initial_value="180.0"/>
    <variable units="mM" name="K_mrel" initial_value="0.8e-3"/>
    <variable units="mM" name="K_mup" initial_value="0.92e-3"/>
    <variable units="per_ms" name="K_leak"/>
    <variable units="mM_per_ms" name="I_up" initial_value="0.005"/>
    <variable units="mM" name="Ca_NSR_max" initial_value="15.0"/>
    
    <variable units="mM" name="delta_Ca_i2"/>
    <variable units="mM" name="delta_Ca_ith" initial_value="0.18e-3"/>
    
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" name="time"/> 
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Cai"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Ca_JSR"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="in" name="Ca_NSR"/>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_rel_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_rel_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_rel </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> G_rel </ci>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> Ca_JSR </ci>
            <ci> Cai </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
     
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="G_rel_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="G_rel_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> G_rel </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> G_rel_peak </ci>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <ci> delta_Ca_i2 </ci>
              <ci> delta_Ca_ith </ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <plus/>
                <ci> K_mrel </ci>
                <ci> delta_Ca_i2 </ci>
              </apply>
              <ci> delta_Ca_ith </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 1.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <exp/>
              <apply>
                <minus/>
                <apply>
                  <divide/>
                  <ci> t_CICR </ci>
                  <ci> tau_on </ci>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <exp/>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <ci> t_CICR </ci>
                <ci> tau_off </ci>
              </apply>     
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
      
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="G_rel_peak_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="G_rel_peak_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> G_rel_peak </ci>
        <piecewise>
          <piece>
            <cn cellml:units="per_ms"> 0.0 </cn>
            <apply>
              <lt/>
              <ci> delta_Ca_i2 </ci>
              <ci> delta_Ca_ith </ci>
            </apply>
          </piece>
          <otherwise>
            <ci> G_rel_max </ci>
          </otherwise>
        </piecewise>
      </apply>
    </math>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_up_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_up_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_up </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> I_up </ci>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <ci> Cai </ci>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <ci> Cai </ci>
              <ci> K_mup </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
     
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_leak_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_leak_calcualtion">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_leak </ci>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <ci> K_leak </ci>
          <ci> Ca_NSR </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
      
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="K_leak_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="K_leak_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> K_leak </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <ci> I_up </ci>
          <ci> Ca_NSR_max </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="i_tr_calculation_eq">
      <apply id="i_tr_calculation">
        <eq/>
        <ci> i_tr </ci>
        <apply>
          <divide/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> Ca_NSR </ci>
            <ci> Ca_JSR </ci>
          </apply>
          <ci> tau_tr </ci>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component>
  
   <component cmeta:id="ionic_concentrations" name="ionic_concentrations">
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="out" name="Nai" initial_value="10.0"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="out" name="Nao" initial_value="140.0"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="out" name="Cai" initial_value="0.12e-3"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="out" name="Cao" initial_value="1.8"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="out" name="Ki" initial_value="145.0"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="out" name="Ko" initial_value="5.4"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="out" name="Ca_JSR" initial_value="1.8"/>
    <variable units="mM" public_interface="out" name="Ca_NSR" initial_value="1.8"/>
    
    <variable units="per_mm" name="Am" initial_value="200"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="V_myo" initial_value="0.68"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="V_JSR" initial_value="0.0048"/>
    <variable units="dimensionless" name="V_NSR" initial_value="0.0552"/>
    
    <variable units="ms" public_interface="in" name="time"/>
    <variable units="faradays_constant_units" public_interface="in" name="F"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="in" name="i_Na"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="in" name="i_CaNa"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="in" name="i_Na_b"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="in" name="i_ns_Na"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="in" name="i_NaCa"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="in" name="i_NaK"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="in" name="i_CaCa"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="in" name="i_CaK"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="in" name="i_p_Ca"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="in" name="i_Ca_b"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="in" name="i_K"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="in" name="i_K1"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="in" name="i_Kp"/>
    <variable units="uA_per_mm2" public_interface="in" name="i_ns_K"/>
    <variable units="mM_per_ms" public_interface="in" name="i_tr"/>
    <variable units="mM_per_ms" public_interface="in" name="i_rel"/>
    <variable units="mM_per_ms" public_interface="in" name="i_leak"/>   
    <variable units="mM_per_ms" public_interface="in" name="i_up"/>
     
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="sodium_diff_eq">
      <apply id="sodium_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> Nai </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <ci> i_Na </ci>
              <ci> i_CaNa </ci>
              <ci> i_Na_b </ci>
              <ci> i_ns_Na </ci>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <ci> i_NaCa </ci>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
              </apply>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <ci> i_NaK </ci>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 3.0 </cn>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <ci> Am </ci>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> V_myo </ci>
              <ci> F </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
     
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="calcium_internal_diff_eq">
      <apply id="calcium_internal_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> Cai </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <plus/>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <apply>
                <minus/>
                <apply>
                  <plus/>
                  <ci> i_CaCa </ci>
                  <ci> i_p_Ca </ci>
                  <ci> i_Ca_b </ci>
                </apply>
                <ci> i_NaCa </ci>
              </apply>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <ci> Am </ci>
              <apply>
                <times/>
                <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
                <ci> V_myo </ci>
                <ci> F </ci>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <ci> i_rel </ci>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <ci> V_JSR </ci>
              <ci> V_myo </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <times/>
            <apply>
              <minus/>
              <ci> i_leak </ci>
              <ci> i_up </ci>
            </apply>
            <apply>
              <divide/>
              <ci> V_NSR </ci>
              <ci> V_myo </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="potassium_internal_diff_eq">
      <apply id="potassium_internal_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> Ki </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <times/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <ci> i_CaK </ci>
              <ci> i_K </ci>
              <ci> i_K1 </ci>
              <ci> i_Kp </ci>
              <ci> i_ns_K </ci>
              <apply>
                <minus/>
                <apply>
                  <times/>
                  <ci> i_NaK </ci>
                  <cn cellml:units="dimensionless"> 2.0 </cn>
                </apply>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
          <apply>
            <divide/>
            <ci> Am </ci>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> V_myo </ci>
              <ci> F </ci>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>        
      </apply>
    </math>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="calcium_JSR_diff_eq">
      <apply id="calcium_JSR_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> Ca_JSR </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <ci> i_rel </ci>
            <apply>
              <times/>
              <ci> i_tr </ci>
              <apply>
                <divide/>
                <ci> V_NSR </ci>
                <ci> V_JSR </ci>
              </apply>
            </apply>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
    
    <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" cmeta:id="calcium_NSR_diff_eq">
      <apply id="calcium_NSR_diff_eq">
        <eq/>
        <apply>
          <diff/>
          <bvar>
            <ci> time </ci>
          </bvar>
          <ci> Ca_NSR </ci>
        </apply>
        <apply>
          <minus/>
          <apply>
            <minus/>
            <apply>
              <plus/>
              <ci> i_leak </ci>
              <ci> i_tr </ci>
            </apply>
            <ci> i_up </ci>
          </apply>
        </apply>
      </apply>
    </math>
  </component> 
  
  <group>
    <relationship_ref relationship="encapsulation"/>
    <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current">
      <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_m_gate"/>
      <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_h_gate"/>
      <component_ref component="fast_sodium_current_j_gate"/>
    </component_ref>
    <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel">
      <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_d_gate"/>
      <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_f_gate"/>
      <component_ref component="L_type_Ca_channel_f_Ca_gate"/>
    </component_ref>
    <component_ref component="time_dependent_potassium_current">
      <component_ref component="time_dependent_potassium_current_X_gate"/>
      <component_ref component="time_dependent_potassium_current_Xi_gate"/>
    </component_ref>
    <component_ref component="time_independent_potassium_current">
      <component_ref component="time_independent_potassium_current_K1_gate"/>
    </component_ref>
  </group>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>


  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="fast_sodium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>


  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="L_type_Ca_channel"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="time_dependent_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
   

  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="Na_Ca_exchanger"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="plateau_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="sarcolemmal_calcium_pump"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="sodium_background_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="calcium_background_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="sodium_potassium_pump"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="non_specific_calcium_activated_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="ionic_concentrations"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
    
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="environment" component_1="calcium_fluxes_in_the_SR"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="fast_sodium_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Na" variable_1="i_Na"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
  </connection>


  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="L_type_Ca_channel" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Ca_L" variable_1="i_Ca_L"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="time_dependent_potassium_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_K" variable_1="i_K"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="Na_Ca_exchanger" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_NaCa" variable_1="i_NaCa"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
  </connection>
 
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="time_independent_potassium_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_K1" variable_1="i_K1"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="plateau_potassium_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
     <map_variables variable_2="i_Kp" variable_1="i_Kp"/>
  </connection>


  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="sarcolemmal_calcium_pump" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_p_Ca" variable_1="i_p_Ca"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="sodium_background_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
     <map_variables variable_2="i_Na_b" variable_1="i_Na_b"/>
  </connection>


  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="calcium_background_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Ca_b" variable_1="i_Ca_b"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="sodium_potassium_pump" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_NaK" variable_1="i_NaK"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="non_specific_calcium_activated_current" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="R" variable_1="R"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="T" variable_1="T"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_ns_Ca" variable_1="i_ns_Ca"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="ionic_concentrations" component_1="membrane"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="F" variable_1="F"/>
  </connection>
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="ionic_concentrations" component_1="fast_sodium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Na" variable_1="i_Na"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Nao" variable_1="Nao"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Nai" variable_1="Nai"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="sodium_background_current" component_1="fast_sodium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="E_Na" variable_1="E_Na"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="ionic_concentrations" component_1="L_type_Ca_channel"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Cai" variable_1="Cai"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Cao" variable_1="Cao"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Nao" variable_1="Nao"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Nai" variable_1="Nai"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ko" variable_1="Ko"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ki" variable_1="Ki"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_CaCa" variable_1="i_CaCa"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_CaNa" variable_1="i_CaNa"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_CaK" variable_1="i_CaK"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="ionic_concentrations" component_1="time_dependent_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ki" variable_1="Ki"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ko" variable_1="Ko"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Nao" variable_1="Nao"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Nai" variable_1="Nai"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_K" variable_1="i_K"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="ionic_concentrations" component_1="Na_Ca_exchanger"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Cai" variable_1="Cai"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Nai" variable_1="Nai"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Cao" variable_1="Cao"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Nao" variable_1="Nao"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_NaCa" variable_1="i_NaCa"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="ionic_concentrations" component_1="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ki" variable_1="Ki"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ko" variable_1="Ko"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_K1" variable_1="i_K1"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="time_independent_potassium_current" component_1="plateau_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="E_K1" variable_1="E_K1"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="ionic_concentrations" component_1="plateau_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Kp" variable_1="i_Kp"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="ionic_concentrations" component_1="sarcolemmal_calcium_pump"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_p_Ca" variable_1="i_p_Ca"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Cai" variable_1="Cai"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="ionic_concentrations" component_1="sodium_background_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Na_b" variable_1="i_Na_b"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="ionic_concentrations" component_1="calcium_background_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Cai" variable_1="Cai"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Cao" variable_1="Cao"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_Ca_b" variable_1="i_Ca_b"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="ionic_concentrations" component_1="sodium_potassium_pump"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Nai" variable_1="Nai"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Nao" variable_1="Nao"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ko" variable_1="Ko"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_NaK" variable_1="i_NaK"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="ionic_concentrations" component_1="non_specific_calcium_activated_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Cai" variable_1="Cai"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Cao" variable_1="Cao"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Nao" variable_1="Nao"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Nai" variable_1="Nai"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ko" variable_1="Ko"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ki" variable_1="Ki"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_ns_Na" variable_1="i_ns_Na"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_ns_K" variable_1="i_ns_K"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="ionic_concentrations" component_1="calcium_fluxes_in_the_SR"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_rel" variable_1="i_rel"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_tr" variable_1="i_tr"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_leak" variable_1="i_leak"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="i_up" variable_1="i_up"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Cai" variable_1="Cai"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ca_JSR" variable_1="Ca_JSR"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Ca_NSR" variable_1="Ca_NSR"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="non_specific_calcium_activated_current" component_1="L_type_Ca_channel"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="gamma_Nao" variable_1="gamma_Nao"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="gamma_Nai" variable_1="gamma_Nai"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="gamma_Ko" variable_1="gamma_Ko"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="gamma_Ki" variable_1="gamma_Ki"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="fast_sodium_current_m_gate" component_1="fast_sodium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="m" variable_1="m"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
  </connection>


  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="fast_sodium_current_h_gate" component_1="fast_sodium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="h" variable_1="h"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="fast_sodium_current_j_gate" component_1="fast_sodium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="j" variable_1="j"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="L_type_Ca_channel_d_gate" component_1="L_type_Ca_channel"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="d" variable_1="d"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="L_type_Ca_channel_f_gate" component_1="L_type_Ca_channel"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="f" variable_1="f"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="L_type_Ca_channel_f_Ca_gate" component_1="L_type_Ca_channel"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="f_Ca" variable_1="f_Ca"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Cai" variable_1="Cai"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="time_dependent_potassium_current_X_gate" component_1="time_dependent_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="X" variable_1="X"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="time_dependent_potassium_current_Xi_gate" component_1="time_dependent_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="Xi" variable_1="Xi"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
  </connection>
  
  
  <connection>
    <map_components component_2="time_independent_potassium_current_K1_gate" component_1="time_independent_potassium_current"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="K1_infinity" variable_1="K1_infinity"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="E_K1" variable_1="E_K1"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="time" variable_1="time"/>
    <map_variables variable_2="V" variable_1="V"/>
  </connection>
  
  

<rdf:RDF>
  <rdf:Seq rdf:about="rdf:#citationAuthorsSeq">
    <rdf:li rdf:resource="rdf:#author1Vcard"/>
    <rdf:li rdf:resource="rdf:#author2Vcard"/>
  </rdf:Seq>
  <rdf:Bag rdf:about="rdf:#21b67834-2f8c-4414-8298-9c2b6d280d40">
    <rdf:li>cardiac</rdf:li>
    <rdf:li>ventricular myocyte</rdf:li>
    <rdf:li>electrophysiology</rdf:li>
  </rdf:Bag>
  <rdf:Seq rdf:about="rdf:#db427821-cde3-4ea6-acb4-aba173ceee89">
    <rdf:li rdf:resource="rdf:#c52c955d-70b9-4a54-9a8c-17915a2c52f5"/>
    <rdf:li rdf:resource="rdf:#4d5ce500-b9d9-419a-9cf1-bbabf75b8e0d"/>
  </rdf:Seq>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#861bbbd5-fe3b-4f8f-b46f-162b384325a1">
    <vCard:Given>Ching-hsing</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Luo</vCard:Family>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#E_NaN_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#eca238c5-1bac-4ef4-ba1b-1957814fb5a0"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#eeea0bfd-f962-49f4-90aa-560d9b2ff5aa">
    <rdf:value>
            The conductance for the channel.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#calcium_NSR_diff_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#6ed40cfe-2830-4c4d-b6ff-2ab75608d720"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#L_type_Ca_channel_f_Ca_gate">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#22e1bab7-3119-41a0-81f5-fc23c1c43a69"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#860e71ac-2d5e-45cc-a9e8-40a1ebc340fe">
    <rdf:value>
            The channel reversal potential.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#83842078-f5a1-45f0-aa79-303bd328aeb1">
    <dc:title>Circulation Research</dc:title>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#I_CaK_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#06aad638-233d-4443-aa4b-48d2117be163"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#111cbb8c-9173-42a2-9b70-d7e7ef9d2e1a">
    <rdf:value>
            The time-dependent potassium reploarisation current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#53493837-f9f6-4536-b2e1-bf2ea45f0690">
    <rdf:value>
            The kinetics of the d gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#31113158-c092-4a36-af97-8db775f63e7d">
    <rdf:value>
            The opening rate for the h gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#beta_K1_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#df428f1e-3520-4930-bbca-bcb82223dcd1"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#membrane_voltage_diff_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#5bfd99b6-78b5-41cc-8e53-5a1b9c86e9a6"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#dj_dt_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#06477d3e-368a-4468-b526-75ec896e4d78"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#acea15f8-7896-42b4-a9c8-1424fe3a72e5">
    <rdf:value>
            This is a dummy equation that we simply use to make grabbing the
            value in CMISS much easier.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#31486372-d1dc-4d54-972c-c71117a32e52">
    <rdf:value>
            The closing rate of the f gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#286fd670-6f28-4e62-8fa3-4951ff063dc9">
    <rdf:value>
            Component grouping together the differential equations for the
            various ionic concentrations that the model tracks.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6fa8996e-697d-4f0b-a56a-12c48427295d">
    <dc:creator rdf:resource="rdf:#b8a9302c-fa9a-4cd6-9ab9-1f482d730de2"/>
    <rdf:value>This is the CellML description of Luo and Rudy's mathematical model of the mammalian cardiac ventricular action potential. It is a significant development on their original 1991 model. While this version of the model qualitatively compares well to the LR II paper for the action potential, the intracellular calcium dynamics have not been included correctly - namely there is no calcium-induced calcium-release (CICR) process in this version of the model. The original version of the model simulates CICR via a mechanism whereby CICR is induced if and only if the calcium accumulated in the cell in the 2 ms following (dV/dt)max exceeds a given threshold. This sort of process is a bit tricky to include in the CellML (or at least in a way that will work with the CellML abilitites of CMISS) so has been left out for now.</rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#I_CaNa_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#91a35310-b6b0-4b4d-9975-6ab1107690a0"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_Ca_L_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#90659886-14c8-4ca0-9ae9-ad99d85d57b8"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#13c03188-2ea0-42e6-b3c0-facf6d220ace">
    <rdf:value>
            The calcium pump current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#8f34572e-b813-455a-8370-a4c302d20c12">
    <vCard:ORG rdf:resource="rdf:#715902b9-7a6c-4279-a54e-38a692026fc5"/>
    <vCard:EMAIL rdf:resource="rdf:#3c3b2d5a-50bc-48f8-ae79-7e82b3cf3745"/>
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#d7e04f1b-e9af-48d2-9d4f-7191f336cf41"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#1c98d94a-c7a7-4075-99c8-b40d62dc9c71">
    <rdf:value>
            The steady-state kinetics of the K1 gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#time_dependent_potassium_current">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#111cbb8c-9173-42a2-9b70-d7e7ef9d2e1a"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#11db82ba-aadc-4708-a32a-3af86fd666a9">
    <rdf:value>
            The maximum sodium component of the channel's current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#5d83c922-e9af-4fbb-b547-2b06f999e78b">
    <bqs:Pubmed_id>7514509</bqs:Pubmed_id>
    <bqs:JournalArticle rdf:resource="rdf:#9945bd2e-af04-4977-810c-c9aeadc1299d"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#58ac972c-67fa-4760-8dd0-25e3774cc6b9">
    <rdf:value>
            The potassium current active at plateau potentials.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#ef1a7209-efdd-4c03-a2db-afc401ad754e">
    <rdf:value>
            Calculation of the current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#time_independent_potassium_current">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#7e2e55a0-16a4-4c73-846b-7011ade1e340"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#9845ea23-14d8-4e82-93a4-d57bad1885df">
    <rdf:value>
            The change in intracellular calcium concentration.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#06aad638-233d-4443-aa4b-48d2117be163">
    <rdf:value>
            The maximum potassium component of the total L-type channel current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="#luo_rudy_1994">
    <dc:title>
        The Luo-Rudy II Model of Mammalian Ventricular Cardiac Action
        Potentials, 1994
      </dc:title>
    <cmeta:bio_entity>Ventricular Myocyte</cmeta:bio_entity>
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#4914a490-5737-42b3-b8c4-c6a50f6eb541"/>
    <bqs:reference rdf:resource="rdf:#5443d8e9-cec7-4789-a353-d69c80dc3985"/>
    <cmeta:species>Mammalia</cmeta:species>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#calcium_fluxes_in_the_SR">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#7e875b6a-12ad-4180-b8ed-8585fcca06a9"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6cc8d6e1-e5ee-4fa4-8eb2-d0cfd3297cbe">
    <rdf:value>
            The background sodium current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#beta_m_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#6f57b22d-9d38-4fd7-a2e3-c020dd11ee72"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6f57b22d-9d38-4fd7-a2e3-c020dd11ee72">
    <rdf:value>
            The closing rate for the m gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#time_dependent_potassium_current_X_gate">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#8e3c2ddd-c24e-4693-a428-2894fe5083de"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#membrane">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#77c1a456-fc95-4761-b2f9-c539e2907e50"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#7e875b6a-12ad-4180-b8ed-8585fcca06a9">
    <rdf:value>
            The various calcium fluxes into and from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#8e3c2ddd-c24e-4693-a428-2894fe5083de">
    <rdf:value>
            The time-dependent activation gate for the time-dependent potassium
            current - the X gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#90659886-14c8-4ca0-9ae9-ad99d85d57b8">
    <rdf:value>
            The total current of the L-type channel current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#f_Ca_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#74c8f184-9256-4be1-beab-ac8b7276f635"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#e3b59417-3a58-4c54-8ac2-4f3ace00863b">
    <rdf:value>
            The opening rate for the K1 gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#9257a342-39f3-41b5-9a7f-388f4379b675">
    <vCard:Orgname>The University of Auckland</vCard:Orgname>
    <vCard:Orgunit>Auckland Bioengineering Institute</vCard:Orgunit>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#76a4e258-e129-4500-aaca-899a952d7532">
    <rdf:value>
            The background calcium current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#4914a490-5737-42b3-b8c4-c6a50f6eb541">
    <dc:creator rdf:resource="rdf:#b2365252-3112-4856-8f9c-f257ef576bd5"/>
    <rdf:value>This is the CellML description of Luo and Rudy's mathematical model of the mammalian cardiac ventricular action potential. It is a significant development on their original 1991 model. While this version of the model qualitatively compares well to the LR II paper for the action potential, the intracellular calcium dynamics have not been included correctly - namely there is no calcium-induced calcium-release (CICR) process in this version of the model. The original version of the model simulates CICR via a mechanism whereby CICR is induced if and only if the calcium accumulated in the cell in the 2 ms following (dV/dt)max exceeds a given threshold. This sort of process is a bit tricky to include in the CellML (or at least in a way that will work with the CellML abilitites of CMISS) so has been left out for now.</rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#8c799ef3-8524-4d3c-b034-02521d109e44">
    <vCard:Given>Catherine</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Lloyd</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>May</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#8905761e-5adb-4bad-bde8-40ac702a9e82">
    <rdf:value>
            The kinetics of the h gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#47f37758-7bc6-485f-8a2f-3b30c2b18ad5">
    <rdf:value>
            Calculation of the channel conductance.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#9945bd2e-af04-4977-810c-c9aeadc1299d">
    <dc:creator rdf:resource="rdf:#db427821-cde3-4ea6-acb4-aba173ceee89"/>
    <dc:title>A Dynamic Model of the Cardiac Ventricular Action Potential I. Simulations of Ionic Currents and Concentration Changes</dc:title>
    <bqs:volume>74</bqs:volume>
    <bqs:first_page>1071</bqs:first_page>
    <bqs:Journal rdf:resource="rdf:#7d0f8831-f90c-43a3-9205-faec5a2d88f3"/>
    <dcterms:issued rdf:resource="rdf:#a52f1245-da89-4f75-a80c-6a20bbe7df33"/>
    <bqs:last_page>1096</bqs:last_page>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#alpha_h_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#31113158-c092-4a36-af97-8db775f63e7d"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_Na_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#4e27dc9d-a4bb-4bbd-9917-7710f97fb88e"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#eca238c5-1bac-4ef4-ba1b-1957814fb5a0">
    <rdf:value>
            The reversal potential for the channel.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#d7e04f1b-e9af-48d2-9d4f-7191f336cf41">
    <vCard:Given>Catherine</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Lloyd</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>May</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#E_Kp_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#43d60ff4-386d-4018-b017-9ec441a88a83"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#2cf60e99-7a37-4381-8053-6ce89db98df3">
    <rdf:value>
            We need to use dV/dt in the calulation of calcium-induced 
            calcium-release, so we make it accessible here.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#87a92d7c-0058-4baf-b791-0450ebf7b58a">
    <rdf:value>
            The reversal potential for the channel.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#L_type_Ca_channel_f_gate">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#8ffd294e-0126-4c1a-916a-789bb3c7c383"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#K1_infinity_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#1c98d94a-c7a7-4075-99c8-b40d62dc9c71"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#alpha_X_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#e70eab76-ebf0-472c-b3f7-586ca26f6190"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#sodium_potassium_pump">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#36872250-17ed-47dc-bc3b-f3907906f242"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#7e2e55a0-16a4-4c73-846b-7011ade1e340">
    <rdf:value>
            The time-independent potassium repolarisation current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#47017c89-3625-4d2c-83a0-4beb85a60991">
    <rdf:value>
            The closing rate for the h gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#dh_dt_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#8905761e-5adb-4bad-bde8-40ac702a9e82"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#5443d8e9-cec7-4789-a353-d69c80dc3985">
    <bqs:Pubmed_id>7514509</bqs:Pubmed_id>
    <bqs:JournalArticle rdf:resource="rdf:#97f5942b-582c-4a35-ac70-eff2067e95f3"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#author1VcardN">
    <vCard:Given>Ching-hsing</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Luo</vCard:Family>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#E_K_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#2b24949f-d4c5-42a8-b723-5eb181fad921"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_leak_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#f37d3616-ad4a-40e4-84a1-b51164d3c645"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#f21980b4-b4fe-4b55-b51a-4848904f7cc1">
    <rdf:value>
            The voltage-dependent slow inactivation gate for the fast sodium
            channel - the j gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#a52f1245-da89-4f75-a80c-6a20bbe7df33">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>1994-06-01</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#8da7daa7-8b4f-4d33-a5d5-0a2c1c2cd177">
    <rdf:value>
            The kinetics of the X gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#60f5de3b-a543-42b2-b867-a60ca08189d7">
    <rdf:value>
            The change in intracellular sodium concentration.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c52c955d-70b9-4a54-9a8c-17915a2c52f5">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/>
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#861bbbd5-fe3b-4f8f-b46f-162b384325a1"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#alpha_f_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#0ee202ac-d501-4afd-a075-c903938bbb09"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#fd6ed334-98de-4f5d-869d-34b78004ae8c">
    <rdf:value>
            The voltage-dependent inactivation gate for the fast sodium channel -
            the h gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#b5770b23-e0d6-4651-b301-346789ff2487">
    <rdf:value>
            Calculation of the exchanger current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#da5c047d-5ff3-4b4e-9094-288d3fe1e33f">
    <rdf:value>
            The voltage-dependent activation gate for the L-type calcium
            channel - the d gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#4259f9af-a657-48bc-9e88-37d186943043">
    <dcterms:modified rdf:resource="rdf:#6d7bfeaf-c43a-435d-8608-f02c5e4fdbce"/>
    <rdf:value>
          Fixed maths: alpha_J_calculation in fast_sodium_current_j_gate, beta_K1_calculation in time_independent_potassium_current_K1_gate, and i_NaK_calculation in sodium_potassium_pump.
        </rdf:value>
    <cmeta:modifier rdf:resource="rdf:#d24a8cf8-ab5b-4d83-ba77-baf2022b840f"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#3f987b9c-ae32-4c7e-9fdf-09c827e4a7cb">
    <vCard:FN>James Lawson</vCard:FN>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_Na_b_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#b9af0253-a338-41b1-9897-c03504cb1f54"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_CaCa_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#47d79ba7-612b-4607-a02b-d25d3431bfb0"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#976183a8-493e-450f-be70-79434284c49e">
    <rdf:value>
            The potassium component of the total L-type channel current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#77c1a456-fc95-4761-b2f9-c539e2907e50">
    <rdf:value>
            The main component for the model, contains all ionic currents and
            defines the transmembrane potential.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#3c3b2d5a-50bc-48f8-ae79-7e82b3cf3745">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://imc.org/vCard/3.0#internet"/>
    <rdf:value>c.lloyd@auckland.ac.nz</rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#cfed257d-2438-487f-bb26-32007b0a0c0a">
    <rdf:value>
            The release flux from the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum into the
            cytosol.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#fa274bc5-db0c-42d8-ba0a-cb9b67552438">
    <vCard:ORG rdf:resource="rdf:#9257a342-39f3-41b5-9a7f-388f4379b675"/>
    <vCard:EMAIL rdf:resource="rdf:#b050f5b2-2da2-4ec8-8ef2-82ad63599e11"/>
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#f6653b54-323b-4fff-bbfd-708fac09667a"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#e70eab76-ebf0-472c-b3f7-586ca26f6190">
    <rdf:value>
            The opening rate for the X gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#3a6533b9-0f33-426a-8db1-098aa4ad0b57">
    <rdf:value>
            The potassium component of the channel's current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#d82cd9a6-2d48-4037-9b4e-0a28b67a6a5e">
    <rdf:value>
            The kinetics of the Xi gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#39e0edc2-396f-45b0-9183-a47833a14cfd">
    <rdf:value>
            The gating variable for the time-independent potassium current - the K1 gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#Na_Ca_exchanger_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#4c6309a7-a8b2-41d4-b393-142d4c7cead2"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#a5c00cfc-0944-4520-912f-97cf98a40559">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>2002-03-28</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#b24b01df-79b2-4688-9b1a-6afaf16c3f68">
    <rdf:value>
            The kinetics of the m gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#22e1bab7-3119-41a0-81f5-fc23c1c43a69">
    <rdf:value>
            The calcium-dependent inactivation gate for the L-type calcium
            channel - the fCa gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#I_ns_Na_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#11db82ba-aadc-4708-a32a-3af86fd666a9"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_K1_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#f2d1ca1a-68f8-4f41-9d64-9292a0f53b14"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#b9af0253-a338-41b1-9897-c03504cb1f54">
    <rdf:value>
            Calculation of the current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#I_CaCa_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#5e0e2c60-77e0-4562-b96f-ac1c98a7a28e"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#EnsCa_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#860e71ac-2d5e-45cc-a9e8-40a1ebc340fe"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#sodium_diff_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#60f5de3b-a543-42b2-b867-a60ca08189d7"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#4ab8758b-cff3-4b39-b055-f80680d672ae">
    <vCard:Given>Yoram</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Rudy</vCard:Family>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#a0fb41c6-024b-4adb-9bb9-9a86fcfbe740">
    <rdf:value>
            Calculation of the current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#fda547bd-f935-468c-b90e-b8411713034c">
    <rdf:value>
            Calculation of the release channel conductance. This is incorrect as
            there is no CICR induced via the accumulation of calcium in the
            cytosol in the period following max(dV/dt)
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#E_K1_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#5883b036-a136-49be-908e-0035c14c9d3e"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#time_dependent_potassium_current_Xi_gate">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#aee9758d-e5f9-4e4a-bdfa-4f1e21aa9e71"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#b8a9302c-fa9a-4cd6-9ab9-1f482d730de2">
    <vCard:FN>Catherine Lloyd</vCard:FN>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_Kp_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#9795c58e-41a2-48e6-8c6f-c48c07c0e3f8"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#47d79ba7-612b-4607-a02b-d25d3431bfb0">
    <rdf:value>
            The calcium component of the total L-type channel current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_CaK_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#976183a8-493e-450f-be70-79434284c49e"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#d24a8cf8-ab5b-4d83-ba77-baf2022b840f">
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#8c799ef3-8524-4d3c-b034-02521d109e44"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#Kp_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#c1a52631-c294-44d6-ac5a-874857131743"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_NaK_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#b5770b23-e0d6-4651-b301-346789ff2487"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#alpha_j_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#6cbb0fc7-8bd7-4acf-be74-070f925d4c43"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#g_K_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#eeea0bfd-f962-49f4-90aa-560d9b2ff5aa"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#dd_dt_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#53493837-f9f6-4536-b2e1-bf2ea45f0690"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#dcf4b094-5f49-4f18-844a-6542dc314118">
    <rdf:value>
            The kinetics of the f gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#1e3f89aa-bd17-4569-875f-82d9f7fd4bab">
    <rdf:value>
            The closing rate for the X gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#4c6309a7-a8b2-41d4-b393-142d4c7cead2">
    <rdf:value>
            Calculation of the exchanger current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_tr_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#80947412-cef4-45d5-8e08-03e24effedb5"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#e4f15e07-6376-4ddc-8b66-3f463cb3cc4f">
    <dc:subject rdf:resource="rdf:#78a05906-6104-4bef-a22d-c90efdbe491d"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#b93c8b21-d95e-4b2b-b211-94bc4ac4e74b">
    <dcterms:modified rdf:resource="rdf:#7317c75c-1477-464e-a64b-5dc429946bc4"/>
    <rdf:value>
          Fixed maths.
        </rdf:value>
    <cmeta:modifier rdf:resource="rdf:#4f0756bf-064e-4757-a8f9-d1dab5856c0c"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#fast_sodium_current_h_gate">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#fd6ed334-98de-4f5d-869d-34b78004ae8c"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6ed40cfe-2830-4c4d-b6ff-2ab75608d720">
    <rdf:value>
            The change in calcium concentration in the network sarcoplasmic
            reticulum.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#ba39ae91-30f3-494b-aba9-ec5199d2e9d2">
    <rdf:value>
            The L-type calcium channel. Primarily a calcium specific channel,
            but with small potassium and sodium components, activated at plateau
            potentials.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#7e3e20b1-2812-44d7-af86-cc1b02c8dc88">
    <rdf:value>
            The closing rate of the d gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#ionic_concentrations">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#286fd670-6f28-4e62-8fa3-4951ff063dc9"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#74c8f184-9256-4be1-beab-ac8b7276f635">
    <rdf:value>
            The kinetics of the fCa gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_ns_Na_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#6114ba02-ae30-4208-993c-f7c95eb48ad0"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#E_Na_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#1150b3fc-c6e2-4389-9c48-c566f671553c"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#author2Vcard">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/>
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#author2VcardN"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6114ba02-ae30-4208-993c-f7c95eb48ad0">
    <rdf:value>
            The sodium component of the channel's current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_ns_K_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#3a6533b9-0f33-426a-8db1-098aa4ad0b57"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6cbb0fc7-8bd7-4acf-be74-070f925d4c43">
    <rdf:value>
            The opening rate for the j gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#f2d1ca1a-68f8-4f41-9d64-9292a0f53b14">
    <rdf:value>
            Calculation of the channel current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="">
    <dc:publisher>The University of Auckland, Auckland Bioengineering Institute</dc:publisher>
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#155f38dc-8d67-4dc4-bbf0-d3466b688819"/>
    <dcterms:created rdf:resource="rdf:#413b80e5-a450-45aa-b0bb-42e1b6c55a51"/>
    <dc:creator rdf:resource="rdf:#fa274bc5-db0c-42d8-ba0a-cb9b67552438"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#sodium_background_current">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#6cc8d6e1-e5ee-4fa4-8eb2-d0cfd3297cbe"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#11405b4e-4614-4f56-aaf9-b2bf0029ad2b">
    <rdf:value>
            The change in intracellular potassium concentration.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#a62cff51-2a07-4dc8-bf52-072b950d2c45">
    <rdf:value>
            The fast sodium current is primarily responsible for the upstroke of
            the action potential.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#1150b3fc-c6e2-4389-9c48-c566f671553c">
    <rdf:value>
            Calculation of reversal potential for the fast sodium channel.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#beta_d_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#7e3e20b1-2812-44d7-af86-cc1b02c8dc88"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#f6653b54-323b-4fff-bbfd-708fac09667a">
    <vCard:Given>Catherine</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Lloyd</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>May</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#non_specific_calcium_activated_current">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#75ec6763-3e25-4571-b618-2fbfb9df363f"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c11aa70d-eb7a-43cd-98d8-92aaf242d822">
    <rdf:value>
            The sodium-calcium exchanger current, exchanges three sodium ions
            for one calcium ion.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#0ee202ac-d501-4afd-a075-c903938bbb09">
    <rdf:value>
            The opening rate of the f gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c1a52631-c294-44d6-ac5a-874857131743">
    <rdf:value>
            The gating kinetics for the channel.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#fast_sodium_current_j_gate">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#f21980b4-b4fe-4b55-b51a-4848904f7cc1"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#91a35310-b6b0-4b4d-9975-6ab1107690a0">
    <rdf:value>
            The maximum sodium component of the total L-type channel current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#I_ns_K_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#bfe4cc97-227f-48d2-8200-a737a815dde8"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#8ffd294e-0126-4c1a-916a-789bb3c7c383">
    <rdf:value>
            The voltage-dependent inactivation gate for the L-type calcium
            channel - the f gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#5883b036-a136-49be-908e-0035c14c9d3e">
    <rdf:value>
            Calculation of the channel reversal potential.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#alpha_m_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#4b682ab7-cdbc-47fb-8a9c-2f475ac2039e"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#fast_sodium_current_m_gate">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#40a4ded6-74e7-45be-a71d-7bd249281610"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#E_CaN_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#87a92d7c-0058-4baf-b791-0450ebf7b58a"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#dV_dt_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#2cf60e99-7a37-4381-8053-6ce89db98df3"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#fast_sodium_current">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#a62cff51-2a07-4dc8-bf52-072b950d2c45"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#author1Vcard">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/>
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#author1VcardN"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#999e4292-2d50-42c3-a3ce-66f2a04425ec">
    <vCard:Given>Catherine</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Lloyd</vCard:Family>
    <vCard:Other>May</vCard:Other>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#5bfd99b6-78b5-41cc-8e53-5a1b9c86e9a6">
    <rdf:value>
            Assign the rate of change of potential for the differential
            equation.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#G_rel_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#fda547bd-f935-468c-b90e-b8411713034c"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_up_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#cb9693bc-2647-453b-9ab2-5c083422a712"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#78a05906-6104-4bef-a22d-c90efdbe491d">
    <bqs:subject_type>keyword</bqs:subject_type>
    <rdf:value rdf:resource="rdf:#21b67834-2f8c-4414-8298-9c2b6d280d40"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#plateau_potassium_current">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#58ac972c-67fa-4760-8dd0-25e3774cc6b9"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#06477d3e-368a-4468-b526-75ec896e4d78">
    <rdf:value>
            The kinetics of for the j gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#cb9693bc-2647-453b-9ab2-5c083422a712">
    <rdf:value>
            The uptake flux into the sarcoplasmic reticulum from the cytosol.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#4e27dc9d-a4bb-4bbd-9917-7710f97fb88e">
    <rdf:value>
            Calculation of the fast sodium current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#6d7bfeaf-c43a-435d-8608-f02c5e4fdbce">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>2003-06-05</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#potassium_internal_diff_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#11405b4e-4614-4f56-aaf9-b2bf0029ad2b"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml">
    <dc:publisher>
        The University of Auckland, Auckland Bioengineering Institute
      </dc:publisher>
    <cmeta:modification rdf:resource="rdf:#4259f9af-a657-48bc-9e88-37d186943043"/>
    <cmeta:modification rdf:resource="rdf:#b93c8b21-d95e-4b2b-b211-94bc4ac4e74b"/>
    <dcterms:created rdf:resource="rdf:#a5c00cfc-0944-4520-912f-97cf98a40559"/>
    <dc:creator rdf:resource="rdf:#8f34572e-b813-455a-8370-a4c302d20c12"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#4b682ab7-cdbc-47fb-8a9c-2f475ac2039e">
    <rdf:value>
            The opening rate for the m gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_Ca_b_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#ef1a7209-efdd-4c03-a2db-afc401ad754e"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#75ec6763-3e25-4571-b618-2fbfb9df363f">
    <rdf:value>
            A non-specific calcium activated channel - assumed impermeable to
            calcium ions but permeable to sodium and potassium ions.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#4f0756bf-064e-4757-a8f9-d1dab5856c0c">
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#999e4292-2d50-42c3-a3ce-66f2a04425ec"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#beta_h_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#47017c89-3625-4d2c-83a0-4beb85a60991"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#36872250-17ed-47dc-bc3b-f3907906f242">
    <rdf:value>
            The sodium/potassium exchanger current which extrudes three sodium
            ions from the cell in exchange for two potassium ions entering the
            cell.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#715902b9-7a6c-4279-a54e-38a692026fc5">
    <vCard:Orgname>The University of Auckland</vCard:Orgname>
    <vCard:Orgunit>Auckland Bioengineering Institute</vCard:Orgunit>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#Xi_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#d82cd9a6-2d48-4037-9b4e-0a28b67a6a5e"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#5e0e2c60-77e0-4562-b96f-ac1c98a7a28e">
    <rdf:value>
            The maximum calcium component of the total L-type channel current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#sarcolemmal_calcium_pump">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#56cb841e-cf85-486d-b10d-d6ae381211cf"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#413b80e5-a450-45aa-b0bb-42e1b6c55a51">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>2002-03-28T00:00:00+00:00</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#beta_X_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#1e3f89aa-bd17-4569-875f-82d9f7fd4bab"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#97f5942b-582c-4a35-ac70-eff2067e95f3">
    <dc:creator rdf:resource="rdf:#citationAuthorsSeq"/>
    <dc:title>A Dynamic Model of the Cardiac Ventricular Action Potential I. Simulations of Ionic Currents and Concentration Changes</dc:title>
    <bqs:volume>74</bqs:volume>
    <bqs:first_page>1071</bqs:first_page>
    <bqs:Journal rdf:resource="rdf:#83842078-f5a1-45f0-aa79-303bd328aeb1"/>
    <dcterms:issued rdf:resource="rdf:#dde0a569-a7b5-47c5-8ba8-4d082d77a641"/>
    <bqs:last_page>1096</bqs:last_page>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#df428f1e-3520-4930-bbca-bcb82223dcd1">
    <rdf:value>
            The closing rate for the K1 gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#b050f5b2-2da2-4ec8-8ef2-82ad63599e11">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://imc.org/vCard/3.0#internet"/>
    <rdf:value>c.lloyd@auckland.ac.nz</rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#calcium_internal_diff_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#9845ea23-14d8-4e82-93a4-d57bad1885df"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#beta_j_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#c3ab0860-e7bc-4272-99bb-27831d3c5872"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#aee9758d-e5f9-4e4a-bdfa-4f1e21aa9e71">
    <rdf:value>
            The time-independent inactivation gate for the time-dependent
            potassium current - the Xi gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#4d5ce500-b9d9-419a-9cf1-bbabf75b8e0d">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cellml.org/bqs/1.0#Person"/>
    <vCard:N rdf:resource="rdf:#4ab8758b-cff3-4b39-b055-f80680d672ae"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="#luo_rudy_1994">
    <bqs:reference rdf:resource="rdf:#5d83c922-e9af-4fbb-b547-2b06f999e78b"/>
    <bqs:reference rdf:resource="rdf:#e4f15e07-6376-4ddc-8b66-3f463cb3cc4f"/>
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#6fa8996e-697d-4f0b-a56a-12c48427295d"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_ns_Ca_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#8710373c-3c70-4e66-8de9-b935dad3d7a2"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#7317c75c-1477-464e-a64b-5dc429946bc4">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>2003-07-30</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#df_dt_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#dcf4b094-5f49-4f18-844a-6542dc314118"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#155f38dc-8d67-4dc4-bbf0-d3466b688819">
    <dc:creator rdf:resource="rdf:#3f987b9c-ae32-4c7e-9fdf-09c827e4a7cb"/>
    <rdf:value>This model contains a delay element in its mathematical description of CICR. Discrete delay elements can not yet be represented in CellML (as of CellML version 1.1) as as such, this model is non-functional. </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_K_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#a0fb41c6-024b-4adb-9bb9-9a86fcfbe740"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#beta_f_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#31486372-d1dc-4d54-972c-c71117a32e52"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#8710373c-3c70-4e66-8de9-b935dad3d7a2">
    <rdf:value>
            The total current through the channel.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#author2VcardN">
    <vCard:Given>Yoram</vCard:Given>
    <vCard:Family>Rudy</vCard:Family>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_CaNa_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#ecc0192c-13e9-45f9-850c-28d1cd1259ea"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#dX_dt_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#8da7daa7-8b4f-4d33-a5d5-0a2c1c2cd177"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#bfe4cc97-227f-48d2-8200-a737a815dde8">
    <rdf:value>
            The maximum potassium component of the channel's current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#dde0a569-a7b5-47c5-8ba8-4d082d77a641">
    <dcterms:W3CDTF>1994-06-01</dcterms:W3CDTF>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#calcium_JSR_diff_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#3d8953ae-2ae0-4a86-80d5-f65c1d6ae520"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#56cb841e-cf85-486d-b10d-d6ae381211cf">
    <rdf:value>
            A calcium pump for removal of calcium from the cytosol to the
            extracellular space.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#g_K1_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#47f37758-7bc6-485f-8a2f-3b30c2b18ad5"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#L_type_Ca_channel_d_gate">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#da5c047d-5ff3-4b4e-9094-288d3fe1e33f"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#43d60ff4-386d-4018-b017-9ec441a88a83">
    <rdf:value>
            The reversal potential for the channel.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#3d8953ae-2ae0-4a86-80d5-f65c1d6ae520">
    <rdf:value>
            The change in calcium concentration in the junctional sarcoplasmic
            reticulum.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#2b24949f-d4c5-42a8-b723-5eb181fad921">
    <rdf:value>
            The reversal potential of the channel.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_rel_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#cfed257d-2438-487f-bb26-32007b0a0c0a"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#ecc0192c-13e9-45f9-850c-28d1cd1259ea">
    <rdf:value>
            The sodium component of the total L-type channel current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#L_type_Ca_channel">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#ba39ae91-30f3-494b-aba9-ec5199d2e9d2"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#time_independent_potassium_current_K1_gate">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#39e0edc2-396f-45b0-9183-a47833a14cfd"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#c3ab0860-e7bc-4272-99bb-27831d3c5872">
    <rdf:value>
            The closing rate for the j gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#80947412-cef4-45d5-8e08-03e24effedb5">
    <rdf:value>
            Translocation flux from the network to the junctional sarcoplasmic
            reticulum.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#i_p_Ca_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#13c03188-2ea0-42e6-b3c0-facf6d220ace"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#dm_dt_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#b24b01df-79b2-4688-9b1a-6afaf16c3f68"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#40a4ded6-74e7-45be-a71d-7bd249281610">
    <rdf:value>
            The voltage-dependent activation gate for the fast sodium channel -
            the m gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#alpha_d_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#06b56481-8a0b-44e4-b51e-becc5946d0ae"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#b2365252-3112-4856-8f9c-f257ef576bd5">
    <vCard:FN>Catherine Lloyd</vCard:FN>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#calcium_background_current">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#76a4e258-e129-4500-aaca-899a952d7532"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#alpha_K1_calculation_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#e3b59417-3a58-4c54-8ac2-4f3ace00863b"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#06b56481-8a0b-44e4-b51e-becc5946d0ae">
    <rdf:value>
            The opening rate of the d gate.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#9795c58e-41a2-48e6-8c6f-c48c07c0e3f8">
    <rdf:value>
            Calculation of the current.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#7d0f8831-f90c-43a3-9205-faec5a2d88f3">
    <dc:title>Circulation Research</dc:title>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#Na_Ca_exchanger">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#c11aa70d-eb7a-43cd-98d8-92aaf242d822"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="cellml://cellml#IStim_for_cmiss_eq">
    <cmeta:comment rdf:resource="rdf:#acea15f8-7896-42b4-a9c8-1424fe3a72e5"/>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="rdf:#f37d3616-ad4a-40e4-84a1-b51164d3c645">
    <rdf:value>
            Calcium leak flux from the network sarcoplasmic reticulum into the
            cytosol.
          </rdf:value>
  </rdf:Description>
</rdf:RDF>
</model>