Courtemanche, Ramirez, Nattel, 1998
This model has been validated by Penny Noble of Oxford University and is known to run in COR and PCEnv.
ValidateCellML verifies this model as valid CellML, but detects unit inconsistencies.
The ionic mechanisms underlying many important properties of the human atrial action potential are poorly understood. Using specific formulations of the K+, Na+ and Ca2+ currents based on experimental data recorded from human atrial myocytes, along with representations of pump, exchange and background currents, Marc Courtemanche, Rafael J. Ramirez and Stanley Nattel developed a mathematical model of the action potential (see the figure below).
This mathematical model builds mostly on the classical work of Luo and Rudy (see The Luo-Rudy Ventricular Model II (dynamic), 1994). Courtemanche et al effectively develop a working model of the human atrial action potential from the Luo-Rudy model which is based on guinea pig ventricular cells. Their primary goal was to develop a useful model of the action potential from which they could gain insights into experimental observations made on human atrial cells and tissues and make predictions regarding the behaviour of these cells under previously untested conditions
The complete original paper reference is cited below:
Ionic mechanisms underlying human atrial action potential properties: insights from a mathematical model, Marc Courtemanche, Rafael J. Ramirez and Stanley Nattel, 1998, American Journal of Physiology , 275, H301-H321. PubMed ID: 9688927
|A schematic representation of currents, pumps and exchangers included in the model. The cell includes three intracellular compartments: cytoplasm, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) release compartment [junctional SR (JSR)], and SR uptake compartment [network SR (NSR)].|