Hunter, McCulloch, ter Keurs, 1998
This model is not currently functional (overconstrained).
Finite element models of the electrical and mechanical behaviour of the whole heart are well established. At the cellular level, there are several models published which describe the changes in ion concentrations and membrane ionic currents underlying the cardiac cell action potential. However, the Hunter-McCulloch-ter Keurs 1998 model is the first to capture the mechanical properties of actively contracting cardiac muscle. The model is based on an extensive review of experimental data from a variety of preparations and species. These experiments are interpreted with a four state variable model which includes i) the passive elasticity of myocardial tissue, ii) the rapid binding of Ca2+ to troponin C, iii) the kinetics of tropomyosin movement and iv) the kinetics of crossbridge tension development.
The complete original paper reference is cited below:
Modelling the mechanical properties of cardiac muscle, P.J. Hunter, A.D. McCulloch and H.E.D.J. ter Keurs, 1998, Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology , 69, 289-331. (A PDF version of the article is available to Science Direct subscribers.) PubMed ID: 9785944
The raw CellML description of the Hunter-McCulloch-ter Keurs model can be downloaded in various formats as described in . For an example of a more complete documentation for an electrophysiological model, see The Hodgkin-Huxley Squid Axon Model, 1952.