Guyton, Muscle Blood Flow Control, 2008
This CellML model has been validated. Due to the differences between procedural code (in this case C-code) and declarative languages (CellML), some aspects of the original model were not able to be encapsulated by the CellML model (such as the damping of variables). This may effect the transient behaviour of the model, however the steady-state behaviour would remain the same. The equations in this file and the steady-state output from the model conform to the results from the MODSIM program.
Arthur Guyton (1919-2003) was an American physiologist who became famous for his 1950s experiments in which he studied the physiology of cardiac output and its relationship with the peripheral circulation. The results of these experiments challenged the conventional wisdom that it was the heart itself that controlled cardiac output. Instead Guyton demonstrated that it was the need of the body tissues for oxygen which was the real regulator of cardiac output. The "Guyton Curves" describe the relationship between right atrial pressures and cardiac output, and they form a foundation for understanding the physiology of circulation.
The Guyton model of fluid, electrolyte, and circulatory regulation is an extensive mathematical model of human circulatory physiology, capable of simulating a variety of experimental conditions, and contains a number of linked subsystems relating to circulation and its neuroendocrine control.
This is a CellML translation of the Guyton model of the regulation of the circulatory system. The complete model consists of separate modules each of which characterise a separate physiological subsystems. The Circulation Dynamics is the primary system, to which other modules/blocks are connected. The other modules characterise the dynamics of the kidney, electrolytes and cell water, thirst and drinking, hormone regulation, autonomic regulation, cardiovascular system etc, and these feedback on the central circulation model. The CellML code in these modules is based on the C code from the programme C-MODSIM created by Dr Jean-Pierre Montani.
The circulatory system is divided into three separate parts for blood flow control:(1) the kidneys which are presented in an entirely separate CellML model; (2) non-muscle local blood flow control; and (3) muscle local blood flow control. This particular CellML model describes muscle autoregulatory local blood flow control. Autoregulation in the muscles is similar to that in the non-muscle tissues except that only two parallel autoregulatory circuits are given. One of these is an extremely short-term autoregulatory circuit that allows rapid adjustment of muscle blood flow to muscle metabolism during muscle activity, and the other is a very long-term autoregulatory circuit.
|A systems analysis diagram for the full Guyton model describing circulation regulation.|
|A schematic diagram of the components and processes described in the current CellML model.|
There are several publications referring to the Guyton model. One of these papers is cited below:
Circulation: Overall Regulation, A.C. Guyton, T.G. Coleman, and H.J. Granger, 1972, Annual Review of Physiology , 34, 13-44. PubMed ID: 4334846